International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: Decisional bias (false alarm rate) when judging the guilt/innocence of a suspect is offered as an implicit measure of moral judgment. Combining two data sets, 215 participants, ages 10–12, 13–15, and 16–18 watched the visually identical film involving a person setting a fire, framed either as (a) intentional but not resulting in a fire (BI-NF), (b) unintentional but resulting in a major fire (NI-F), or (c) intentional and resulting in a major fire (BI-F). After watching the film, participants identified seriatim who of six individuals was the perpetrator and how certain they were. The data were subjected to a…signal detection analysis . Participants also explicitly judged “how bad” the perpetrator and act were. The implicit measure fit Piaget’s claim of moral realism , shifting from judging wrongness according to the outcome to judging according to the actor’s intentions, better than the explicit traditional measures.
Keywords: Eyewitness identification, moral judgment, decision-making
Abstract: Theoretically, there are strong arguments for a relationship between cyberbullying and trust. On the one hand, trust is built on experiences; thus, experiences of malevolence such as cyberbullying might contribute to low trust. On the other hand, high trust may lead to risky online behavior such as self-disclosures that could increase the risk of cyberbullying. As first empirical evidence, we explored this relationship in two cross-sectional studies. Explorative Study 1 (N = 224) showed that negative experiences of family problems and cyber-perpetration predicted low generalized trust. Exploratory Study 2 (N = 196) showed no significant direct relationship, but trust was related to…low online privacy concerns and the willingness to self-disclose online was positively related to cyber-victimization and cyber-perpetration. Thus, these studies show mixed evidence and demonstrate that the relationship between cyberbullying and trust might be more complex than assumed. Future longitudinal designs might be illuminating.
Keywords: Cyberbullying, trust, family problems, self-disclosure
Abstract: The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cyber-victimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of 2,329 gymnasium students (50% girls, Mage = 13.08, SD = 0.86) from 120 classes, grade 7 to 9, from six Cypriot schools, completed self-report questionnaires. Traditional bullying was predicted by cyberbullying and socio-emotional, academic and demographic variables. Cyberbullying was predicted by traditional bullying and academic variables. Traditional victimization was predicted by cyber-victimization, socio-emotional variables and being male. Cyber-victimization…was predicted by traditional victimization and academic variables. Compared with uninvolved adolescents, traditional, cyber and mixed bullies had lower levels of academic variables; traditional and mixed victims had higher levels of emotional problems and affective empathy; and mixed bully-victims had lower levels of both academic and socio-emotional variables. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Abstract: The goals of this study were (1) to identify groups of bullies and victims, (2) to investigate level differences in depression, peer relationships, and academic variables, and (3) to examine how peer relationships and academic variables were associated with depression in these groups. The sample comprised 1,451 students (48.6% girls) aged 10–15 years (M = 12.31). Applying Latent Profile Analysis five groups were identified: non-involved adolescents (74%), bullies (9%), moderate victims (11%), severe victims (3%), and bully-victims (3%). Non-involved adolescents had lowest level of depression and highest level of school liking. Severe victims had fewest reciprocal friends and were perceived as…most unpopular. Severe victims and bully-victims had highest level of depression and lowest levels of school liking. In non-involved adolescents, moderate victims, and in bully-victims academic variables, in bullies academic variables and peer relations, and in severe victims peer relations were related to depression.
Abstract: Nowadays cyberbullying prevention programs such as Surf-Fair can significantly reduce cyberbullying but little is known about necessary and sufficient conditions of their effectiveness. Case Study 1 followed three successive waves of implementation of Surf-Fair in one German highest-track secondary school in a pre-post design. Results show no reduction in negative cyber incidents, but students indicated using better coping strategies afterwards and evaluated Surf-Fair positively. These effects were more pronounced in later waves conducted by teachers, confirming teachers’ ability to administer Surf-Fair. Case Study 2 explored if a stand-alone Surf-Fair Bystander Unit would successfully increase empathy and helping and reduce negative…cyber incidents at German mixed-track comprehensive schools. No significant effects were detected in a pre-post waiting-control-group design, most likely due to the context. Based on these examples more general challenges of cyberbullying prevention research will be discussed, for example school volunteering and politics and different evaluation and didactic approaches.