Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two different shear wave elastography (SWE) techniques in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS : From March 2016 to May 2016, a total of 153 breast lesions (mean diameter, 16.8 mm±10.5; range 4.1–90.0 mm) in 153 patients (mean age, 46.4 years±15.1; age range 20–86 years) were separately performed by two different SWE techniques (i.e. T-SWE, Aplio500, Toshiba Medical System, Tochigi, Japan; and S-SWE, the Aixplorer US system, SuperSonic Imagine, Provence, France). The maximum (Emax), mean (Emean) and standard deviation (ESD ) of elasticity modulus values in T-SWE and S-SWE…were analyzed. All the lesions were confirmed by ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (n = 26), surgery (n = 122), or both (n = 5), with pathological results as the gold standard. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the diagnostic performance between T-SWE and S-SWE. Operator consistency was also evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 153 lesions, 41 (26.8%) were malignant and 112 (73.2%) were benign. Emax (T-SWE: 40.10±37.14 kPa vs. 118.78±34.41 kPa; S-SWE: 41.22±22.54 kPa vs. 134.77±60.51 kPa), Emean (T-SWE: 19.75±16.31 kPa vs. 52.93±25.75 kPa; S-SWE: 20.95±10.98 kPa vs. 55.95±22.42 kPa) and ESD (T-SWE: 9.00±8.55 kPa vs. 38.44±12.30 kPa; S-SWE: 8.17±6.14 kPa vs. 29.34±13.88 kPa) showed statistical differences in distinguishing malignant lesions from benign ones both in T-SWE and S-SWE (all p < 0.05). In T-SWE, the diagnostic performance of ESD was the highest (AUROC = 0.958), followed by Emax (AUROC = 0.909; p = 0.001 in comparison with ESD ) and Emean (AUROC = 0.892; p < 0.001 in comparison with ESD ), while in S-SWE, the diagnostic performance of Emax was the highest (AUROC = 0.967), followed by ESD (AUROC = 0.962, p > 0.05 in comparison with Emax) and Emean (AUROC = 0.930, p = 0.034 in comparison with Emax). AUROC-max (T-SWE: 0.909 vs. S-SWE: 0.967), AUROC-mean (T-SWE: 0.892 vs. S-SWE: 0.930) and AUROC-SD (T-SWE: 0.958 vs. S-SWE: 0.962) showed no significant difference between T-SWE and S-SWE (all p > 0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the intra-operator consistency and inter-operator consistency respectively were 0.961 and 0.898 in T-SWE, while 0.954 and 0.897 in S-SWE. CONCLUSION: T-SWE and S-SWE are equivalent for distinguishing the breast lesions. In T-SWE, ESD had the best diagnostic performance, while in S-SWE, Emax had the best diagnostic performance.
Keywords: Breast lesions, shear wave elastography, ultrasound, diagnostic performance, elastography
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture around implants is a common complication after breast reconstruction. Strain elastography (STE) and shear-wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive imaging techniques that can measure tissue stiffness and thickness of the capsule. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of the study were to compare STE and SWE for measurement of capsular contracture after breast implant reconstruction using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and to investigate the correlation of these data with the Baker score, which is the most frequently used clinical staging scale for capsule contracture. METHODS: The subjects were 20 patients (27 implants) who underwent breast reconstruction.…RESULTS: The reproducibility of SWE (ICC: 0.878) was higher than that of STE (ICC: 0.724) for measurement of capsular contracture. The correlation coefficient between measurements with the two methods was low (r = 0.6788). The Baker score had a higher correlation with measurements with SWE (r = 0.8124) compared to those with STE (r = 0.6983). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SWE is a better tool for assessment of the degree of capsule contracture surrounding implants after breast reconstruction.
Keywords: Ultrasound, shear wave elastography, strain elastography, capsular contracture, breast implant, breast reconstruction
Abstract: Mechanical shear stress is one of the important factors for platelet activation. Although shear stress has been frequently utilized in many applications of diagnostic bio-equipment, there has been little consideration as to whether shear stress induces platelet activation and consequently alters hemorheological characteristics. Therefore, we investigated the effect of shear-induced platelet activation on red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. The hypothesis of the present research is as follows: Platelets activated by high shear stress secrete substances, which can affect hemorheological characteristics to promote RBC aggregation. In our study, an increase in RBC aggregation indices (critical shear stress (CSS) and aggregation index…(AI)) by shear-induced platelet activation was observed. Significantly, an increase of 19% in CSS was observed. However, deformability remained unchanged. These phenomena could be a result of the increased cellular adhesion force on RBC membranes due to secreted substances from activated platelets. Therefore, since high shear application results in the unexpected effect on RBC aggregation, conditions for shear application in diagnostic bio-equipment are to be carefully determined.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of transvaginal elastography (TVES) combined with high-resolution transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in the detection of parametrial invasion in cervical cancer and to compare the diagnostic performance with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer over a 2-year period were staged using International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria and underwent MRI and TVES combined with TVS according to a standardized protocol before treatment. When assessing parametrial involvement with TVS, MRI, and combination of TVES and TVS, the findings…were recorded and compared with histopathological results after surgery in early-stage disease (stage⩽IIa). Sensitivity, specificity accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each method independently; subsequently, a matched-sample analysis was performed by using McNemar’s test or chi-square test. RESULTS: Of 52 patients, 39 were early-stage disease (stage⩽IIa), and 13 were advanced-stage disease (stage⩾IIb) according to conventional FIGO staging. For the detection of parametrial infiltration, both the diagnostic sensitivity of MRI and the combination of TVS and TVES were statistically higher than alone TVS in early-stage of cervical cancer (P = 0.03 < 0.05). Both MRI and the combination of TVS and TVES had a sensitivity of 72.73%; specificity rates of 82.14% for MRI and 78.57% for the combination of TVES and TVS; and the diagnostic accuracy rates of 79.49% for MRI and 76.92% for the combination of TVES and TVS. A matched sample analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic performance of MRI and the combination of TVES and TVS in the assessment of parametrial invasion (all P values > 0.05). CONCLUSION: TVES combined with TVS performed by a dedicated gynecologic radiologist should be considered a promising and economic method for pre-operative work-up for cervical cancer.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the combination of conventional ultrasound (US) and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) in predicting triple-negative breast cancer and the likelihood of lymphatic metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total 178 women presenting from May 2013 to September 2015 with pathologically proven triple-negative (n = 60) or hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer (n = 118) were reviewed. Conventional US and ARFI imaging including Virtual touch tissue image (VTI) and Virtual Touch tissue Quantification (VTQ), were performed for each breast nodule. Parameters collected included patient age, lymph node involvement, histological grade, tumor…subtype, appearance on conventional US, VTQ value, VTI score and the boundary on VTI. The ARFI findings were compared with the pathological findings. RESULTS: Younger age (P < 0.001), higher histological grade (P < 0.001), lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.001), more nodes involved (P = 0.001), larger tumor size (P = 0.008), regular shape (P = 0.032), high VTI score (P = 0.006), unclear VTI boundary (P = 0.033), shear-wave velocity (SWV) ≥3.51 m/s (P = 0.015) were significantly associated with triple-negative breast cancer. High VTI score (P = 0.004) and a high SWV ≥4.15 m/s (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis. CONCLUSION: Conventional US combined with ARFI may be used to predict triple-negative breast cancer. Those cancers with higher SWV and the high VTI score have a higher likelihood of lymphatic metastasis.
Keywords: Conventional US, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), triple-negative breast cancer, lymphatic metastasis
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafts and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to treat soft tissue defects. However, the results are inconsistent and sometimes comprise tissue resorption and necrosis. This might be due to insufficient vascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of concentrated autologous platelets. The growth factors and cytokines released by platelets can facilitate angiogenesis. The simultaneous use of PRP might improve the regeneration potential of fat grafts. The optimal ratio has yet to be elucidated. A byproduct of PRP preparation is platelet-poor plasma (PPP). OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the influence of different concentrations…of PRP on the vitality and differentiation of ASCs. METHODS: We processed whole blood with the Arthrex Angel centrifuge and isolated ASCs from the same donor. We tested the effects of different PRP and PPP concentrations on the vitality using resazurin assays and the differentiation of ASCs using oil-red staining. RESULTS: Both cell vitality and adipogenic differentiation increase to a concentration of 10% to 20% PRP. With a PRP concentration of 30% cell vitality and differentiation decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Both PRP and PPP can be used to expand ASCs without xenogeneic additives in cell culture. A PRP concentration above 20% has inhibitory effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Erythrocytes undergo irreversible morphological and biochemical changes during storage. Reduced levels of deformability have been reported for stored erythrocytes. Erythrocyte deformability is essential for healthy microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate shear stress (SS) induced improvements of erythrocyte deformability in stored blood. METHODS: Deformability changes were evaluated by applying physiological levels of SS (5 and 10 Pa) in metabolically depleted blood for 48 hours and stored blood for 35 days with citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). Laser diffractometry was used to measure erythrocyte deformability before and after application of SS.…RESULTS: Erythrocyte deformability, as a response to continuous SS, was significantly improved in metabolically depleted blood, whereas it was significantly impaired in the blood stored for 35 days with CPDA-1 (p ≤0.05). The SS-induced improvements of deformability were deteriorated due to storage and relatively impaired according to the storage time. However, deformability of stored blood after exposure to mechanical stress tends to increase at low levels of shear while decreasing at high SS levels. CONCLUSION: Impairment of erythrocyte deformability after storage may contribute to impairments in the recipient’s microcirculation after blood transfusion. The period of the storage should be considered to prevent microcirculatory problems and insufficient oxygen delivery to the tissues.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Non-calcified thyroid nodules are relatively difficult to diagnose only relying on features of at conventional US images. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic performances of conventional strain elastography (SE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) SE and point shear-wave speed (pSWS) measurement for non-calcified thyroid nodules. METHODS: A total of 201 non-calcified thyroid nodules in 195 patients were studied. They were examined with conventional ultrasound (US), conventional SE, ARFI SE and pSWS measurement. Their diagnostic performances and multivariable models were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analyses respectively. RESULTS: There…were 156 benign and 45 malignant non-calcified nodules proven by histopathology or cystology. The mean diameters of the nodules were 21.2±10.8 mm. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of elastography features (ranged, 0.488–0.745) were all greater than that of US (ranged, 0.111–0.332). At multivariate analysis, there were three predictors of malignancy for non-calcified nodules, including pSWS of nodule (odds ratio [OR], 34.960; 95% CI, 11.582–105.529), marked hypoechogenicity (OR, 16.223; 95% CI, 1.761–149.454) and ARFI SE grade (OR, 10.900; 95% CI, 3.567–33.310). US+SE+pSWS owned the largest AUC (0.936; 95% CI, 0.887–0.985; P < 0.05), followed by US+pSWS (0.889; 95% CI, 0.823–0.955), and the poorest was US (0.727; 95% CI, 0.635–0.819). CONCLUSIONS: ARFI SE and pSWS measurement had better diagnostic performances than conventional SE and US. When US combined with SE and pSWS measurement, it could achieve an excellent diagnostic performance and might contribute a better decision-making of FNA for non-calcified thyroid nodules.
Keywords: Ultrasound, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse, point shear-wave speed measurement, elastography