Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Surgical flaps have become reliable tools in the microsurgical armamentarium, but are still faced with tissue loss due to impaired perfusion which can lead to complete flap failure. Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC) has been demonstrated to be an effective way to improve microcirculation in surgical flaps in humans. However, little is known about the optimal amount and length of RIC cycles. OBJECTIVE: Determination of a superior protocol for RIC of cutaneous microcirculation in humans. METHODS: 60 healthy volunteers were randomized into different groups and received a RIC protocol, consisting of three cycles of either…1 second, 1, 5, or 10 minutes of ischemia followed by ten minutes of reperfusion. RIC was applied with a inflatable tourniquet placed on the upper arm. Changes in microcirculation were assessed via combined laser doppler/spectroscopy (O2C device) at the anterior lateral thigh. Relative increase at the end of conditioning vs. baseline measurements was calculated and compared between groups. RESULTS: RIC caused significant changes in cutaneous microcirculation (p < 0.05) which were more pronounced in groups with longer ischemia intervals. The ten minutes group was significantly superior. CONCLUSION: A conditioning protocol containing three cycles of ten minutes of ischemia is superior to protocols with shorter ischemia intervals for RIC of cutaneous microcirculation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a major complication in diabetics. Impaired microvascular reactivity is a major contributor to the development of DFU and has been traditionally quantified by time-domain or frequency-domain measures of skin blood flow (SBF). These measures, however, are unable to characterize the changes of nonlinear dynamics of SBF associated with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate altered nonlinear dynamics of skin blood flow in the plantar foot of diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: 18 type 2 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 healthy controls…were recruited. SBF at the first metatarsal head in response to a loading pressure of 300 mmHg and a local heating was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. A sample entropy approach was used to quantify the degree of regularity of SBF. RESULTS: Our results showed that the regularity degree of SBF in the diabetic foot underwent only small changes during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia and thermally induced biphasic response compared to non-diabetics. SBF of the diabetic foot has higher degree of irregularity during reactive hyperemia because of attenuated myogenic activity, and demonstrated higher regularity during the biphasic response largely due to significantly enhanced cardiac activities. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the regularity degree of SBF at the first metatarsal head could be used to assess impaired microvascular reactivity and thus may be used to assess the risk for DFU in diabetics with peripheralneuropathy.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In a fulminant porcine sepsis model, we determined the kinetics of hypoxia induced changes in relation to sepsis parameters and markers of organ damage. METHODS: Female pigs were challenged by live Escherichia coli and samples were analysed up to 4 hours. Bone marrow reactions were determined by analysing immature forms of peripheral blood cells by a hematology analyser and light microscopy. Platelet mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Core temperature, modified shock index and lactate levels all became significantly elevated compared to baseline values at 4 hours in septic animals.…At 2 hours already the reticulocyte count, nucleated red blood cell count and the absolute number of dysplastic platelets became significantly elevated. The platelet mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was significantly decreased by 2 hours in septic animals compared to the baseline values and to control animals. No massive organ damage was evident during the 4-hour observation period, but uric acid levels in septic animals became significantly elevated already by 2 hours. CONCLUSIONS: In this Escherichia coli induced porcine model, severe sepsis was evident by conventional criteria at 4 hours while several - mostly hypoxemia induced - biomarkers were already altered by 2 hours.
Keywords: Immature red blood cells and platelets, platelet apoptosis, sepsis
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using a high-end ultrasound system in the characterization of endoleaks after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this mono-center study, 41 patients were retrospectively analyzed after being examined using a modern high-end ultrasound system (RS80A with Prestige, Samsung Medison Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea). The maximum diameters of the aneurysms were measured in two planes (right-left and ventral-dorsal). The performance of Color Doppler in comparison to CEUS was evaluated and CEUS was considered as the gold standard in endoleaks detection. RESULTS: 41 patients were included…in the study. Between June and December 2016, mostly male patients (n = 38; 92,7%) were examined, corresponding to the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the population. Average age was 75±8 years (range 58–100 years). Average diameter of the treated aneurysm-sacs was 5,04±1.5 cm (range 2.7–10.5 cm) in the right-left plane and 4,75±1.36 cm (range 2.8–8.9 cm) in the ventral-dorsal plane. Using CEUS as the gold standard endoleaks could be detected in 28 patients (68,3%) with 13 patients not showing an endoleak after EVAR. Color Doppler showed a sensitivity of 32.1%, a specificity of 92.3%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 38,7% compared to CEUS being the gold standard. CONCLUSION: CEUS after EVAR using a modern high-end ultrasound system is a fast and cost-effective imaging modality for the detection and follow-up of endoleaks with superior benefits compared to Color Doppler. CEUS remains the initial standard-of-care examination for follow-up.
Keywords: Endoleak, EVAR, CEUS, high-end ultrasound system
Abstract: BACKROUND: Coronary bypass surgery using the internal mammary artery (IMA) is among the most commonly performed procedures in treatment of advanced coronary vessel disease. Further, bilateral harvesting of the IMA is associated with increased rates of sternal wound infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore changes in sternal perfusion, following left internal mammary artery (LIMA) harvesting. METHODS: 60 patients were divided equally into intervention- and control cohorts and underwent assessment of oxygen saturation (sO2) and relative blood flow (RBF) by laser doppler flowmetry remission spectroscopy preoperatively, 24 h and 72 h postoperatively. RESULTS: 24 h postoperatively…a significant decrease of sO2 and RBF could be detected in LIMA harvest patients. After 72 h this difference disappeared. The side comparison within the groups 24 h postoperatively revealed a reduction of sO2 on the LIMA side within both groups. Regarding the 24 h RBF in side comparison, no significant differences could be detected within the groups. The 72 h side comparison showed an increased RBF for the non-LIMA side within the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the LIMA may lead to significant decreases in local tissue oxygen saturation and RBF. This reduction is mostly distinct within the first 3 days postoperatively and may influence sternal wound infections.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in histologic prediction of focal liver lesions after liver transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 focal liver lesions in 10 patients after liver transplantation were scanned using CEUS and the CEUS results were compared with the histopathological results. RESULTS: Among 10 focal liver lesions, 7 proofed to be histopathological benign and 3 lesions proofed to be histopathological malignant. All lesions (100%) were correctly report as benign or malignant in the report of the CEUS examination. CONCLUSION: CEUS can be helpful in the differentiation of benign…and malignant focal liver lesions in patients after liver transplantation and can be used in clinical management of focal liver lesions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify the indications for CEUS in renal imaging in an interdisciplinary ultrasound department. METHODS: 102 CEUS examinations of the kidney in 82 patients between September 2014 and July 2016 were analysed regarding the indication for ultrasound. CEUS was performed by one experienced sonographer agent after bolus injection of 1.0 up to 2.4 ml sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles using multifrequency probes with Contrast Harmonic imaging. RESULTS: CEUS of the kidney was performed in patients from 20 to 87 years. 44% of the patients had a stage 3 of chronic kidney disease and higher 38% of the…patients had undergone a renal transplantation. No adverse events were observed. 54% of examinations were requested by nephrologists. The remaining by surgeons, oncologists or gastroenterologists. In 47% the objectives were the evaluation of complex renal cysts, in 31% the analysis of kidney perfusion, in 19% the assessment of solid renal masses. The remaining were perirenal tumours (2%) and infection (1%). CONCLUSIONS: CEUS is a good diagnostic alternative for patients with impaired renal function, complicated cysts, infections, solid renal lesions and after renal transplant.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To analyse the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with vascular complications and transplant rejection compared to histopathological results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study consisted of 45 retrospectively analysed patients that underwent liver transplantations between January 1993 and December 2015 and developed post-transplant vascular complications with transplant rejection. CEUS examinations took place between September 2006 and December 2015. CEUS findings were correlated with histopathological results. RESULTS: CEUS showed a sensitivity of 61.5%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 86,5% in…the detection of vascular complications with post-transplant rejection. 5 examinations were reported as normal whereas the histopathological result showed a transplant rejection (false-negative). CONCLUSION: CEUS might be a useful additional non-invasive technique for the assessment of vascular complications with post-transplant rejection in patients after liver transplantation.