Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: It is widely known that the β-adrenergic receptor (AR) blocker (propranolol) inhibits human endothelial cell (EC) angiogenesis in vitro , but how the α -AR antagonist (phentolamine) affects human EC angiogenesis has not yet been studied. Here, we show for the first time that both human dermal microvascular ECs (HDMECs) and human brain microvascular ECs (HBMECs) express α -ARs. Moreover, our results indicate that phentolamine inhibits the proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of HDMECs and HBMECs. Finally, VEGFR-2 and Ang1/2 expression of HDMECs was suppressed by phentolamine. Together, these results indicate that phentolamine impairs several critical events of neovascularization, and α…-ARs, as well as the VEGF/VEGFR-2 and Ang/Tie-2 signaling pathways, may be involved in these processes. Our results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy for the use of α -blockers in the treatment of human angiogenesis-dependent diseases.
Abstract: Dialysis patients present a cardiovascular risk substantially higher than general population, due to both traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Hemorheologic alterations have been extensively described in hemodialysis patients (HD), while little data on hemorheology exist about peritoneal dialysis patients (PD). Aim of our study is to characterize the hemorheological profile of 49 PD, and to compare these data with HD and healthy volunteers. PD showed an improvement of parameters related to macro-circulation (plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at 1-Hz, erythrocyte aggregation index and yield stress) when compared to HD, while microcirculatory function resulted severely impaired, as expressed by high values…for whole blood viscosity 200-Hz shear rate and lower erythrocyte deformability (ED). In conclusion, we found hemorheologic alterations in PD, with substantial differences with respect to HD; in particular, PD showed profound dysfunction in microcirculatory flow with impaired ED. This alterations may act as a risk factor for accelerated atherosclerosis and precipitate cardiovascular events, and it may have a detrimental effect in the peritoneal microcirculation promoting endothelial activation with subsequent fibrosis, leading to peritoneal membrane malfunctioning.
Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been increasingly used in a variety of biomedical applications, such as in vivo delivery of drugs and tumor imaging. Potential exposure of SWNTs to human red blood cells (RBCs) may cause serious toxicity including alteration of mechanical properties of cells. The present study investigated the cellular response to exposure of SWNTs with measuring rheological characteristics of RBCs, including hemolysis, deformability, aggregation, and morphological changes. RBCs were exposed to two different dispersion-state samples (i.e. individual SWNTs and bundled SWNTs) in chitosan hydroxyphenyl acetamide (CHPA) solutions. The concentrations of SWNTs were carefully chosen to avoid any…hemorheological alterations due to hemolysis. Rheological characteristics were measured using microfluidic-laser diffractometry and aggregometery. Our results show that the bundled SWNTs had higher hemolytic activity than did the individual SWNTs. RBC aggregation apparently decreased as the concentration of SWNTs or incubation time increased. Additionally, bundled SWNTs caused significant alterations in the shape and fusion of RBCs. In conclusion, bundled SWNTs were found to be more toxic than individual SWNTs. These results provide important insights into the interactions between RBCs and SWNTs and will facilitate assessment of the risk of nanomaterial toxicity of blood.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The prognostic scoring systems for mortality of intensive care patients estimate clinical outcome using several physiological and biochemical parameters. In altered hemodynamic conditions of critically ill patients, hemorheological variables may play a significant role in appropriate tissue perfusion. We investigated if hemorheological parameters are altered in critical status and if they could be markers of mortality. METHODS: 112 patients (67.8 ± 12 years, 58 males, 54 females) treated in intensive care unit with different non-surgical diseases were investigated. Routine laboratory parameters and prognostic scores were determined and hemorheological variables (hematocrit, plasma and whole blood viscosity, red…blood cell aggregation and deformability) were measured on the 1st and the 2nd day after admission. RESULTS: ICU scores predicted 35.2–41.3% mortality rate, real mortality in intensive care unit was 37.5%, while 30-day mortality was 46.6%. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) and red blood cell (RBC) deformability were lower, red blood cell aggregation was higher in septic than in nonseptic patients (p < 0.05). In septic patients calcium was increased, osmolality was decreased, while in nonseptic patients WBV and RBC aggregation were higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (p < 0.05). Worsening of RBC deformability from day 1 to day 2 predicted higher mortality (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Calcium and osmolality level were associated with outcome in sepsis. Whole blood viscosity, red blood cell aggregation and change in red blood cell deformability could predict mortality in nonseptic patients and they may add prognostic information over the ICU scores. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the benefit of our findings in clinical practice.
Abstract: The radial dispersion of red blood cells (RBCs) near the vessel wall can significantly affect the transport dynamics in small vessels. The radial dispersion of RBCs is mainly caused by collisions between RBCs and this can be enhanced aggregation. The objective of this study is to numerically investigate on the effect of RBC deformability on the radial motion of individual RBCs in a range of flow rates. Immersed Boundary - Lattice Boltzmann Method was utilized to study the radial motion of RBCs in a two-dimensional flow domain. The RBC flow simulations were performed at 40% hematocrit in a microvessel with…diameter of 25μm and length of 100μm. The dispersion of less deformable RBCs was notably greater than that of normal RBCs at all flow rates and this effect seemed to be more pronounced when the flow rate was increased. The cell dispersion was higher near the vessel wall than the flow center regardless of flow rate and RBCs deformability. Thus, the dispersion of RBCs could be enhanced with flow rate and RBC rigidity. Our findings would be especially useful in investigating blood flows in arterioles and venules.
Abstract: Raynaud’s phenomenon is an episodic, painful attack of the acral parts caused by local diminished blood supply. The aim of our study was to examine hemorheological parameters, cold agglutinins, cryoglobulins and their relationship in patients suffering from Raynaud’s phenomenon. Blood was taken from 74 patients (mean age: 48 years, female/male: 56/18). Cold agglutinins and cryoglobulins were determined. Hemorheological parameters were also measured such as hematocrit, plasma and whole blood viscosity, red blood cell aggregation and deformability. Results were compared to a group of 58 healthy controls (mean age: 31.5 years, female/male: 24/34). Cold agglutinins were positive in 70%,…cryoglobulins in 43% of patients. When compared to healthy controls, increased red blood cell aggregation (64.54 ± 8.93 vs. 61.11 ± 7.05) and decreased red blood cell deformability (0.669 ± 0.002 vs. 0.681 ± 0.001) was observed in Raynaud’s patients (p < 0.05), but there were no differences in hematocrit (43.27% ± 3.85 vs. 44.10% ± 3.70), plasma (1.27 mPas ± 0.08 vs. 1.24 mPas ± 0.09) and whole blood viscosity (4.12 mPas ± 0.52 vs. 4.26 mPas ± 0.46). No differences were found between the hemorheological profile of cold agglutinin/cryoglobulin positive and negative patients. Also primary and secondary Raynaud’s patients had similar rheological profile. Erythrocyte aggregation and deformability seems to be unfavorable in Raynaud’s patients that can play a role in the disturbance of the microcirculation.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine RDW and MPV levels in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and to investigate their relations with disease activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 133 patients with AS (male: 80, female: 53) and age-sex matched 133 controls (male: 79, female: 54) were enrolled. Demographic data, disease activity scores, Complete Blood Count (CBC), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels were recorded. RESULTS: The mean ages of patients and controls were 41.9±11.2 and 39.7±14.2 years respectively (p = 0.16). RDW (14.5±1.6% and 13.2±0.8%, p < 0.0001 respectively) and MPV (10.1±0.8fl and 9.9±0.7fl, p = 0.03, respectively) were significantly higher…in patients with AS than in controls. There was a significant difference in RDW between patients with active AS (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) >4) and those with inactive AS (BASDI <4) patients (14.84±1.79fl, 14.24±1.37fl, p = 0.035 respectively). RDW was positively correlated with BASDAI (r = 0.33, P < 0.0001), ESR (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.42, P < 0.0001) and PLT levels (r = 0.24, P = 0.004). While MPV was not correlated with BASDAI, it was negatively correlated with ESR (r = –0.19, P = 0.03), CPR (r = –0.26, P = 0.004) and PLT levels (r = –0.39, P = <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: RDW and MPV were significantly higher in the patients with AS than in the controls. While RDW was correlated with BASDAI and APRs, MPV was only correlated with APRs.
Keywords: Ankylosing Spondylitis, red cell distrubution width, mean platelet volume, BASDAI
Abstract: Possible changes in the erythrocyte membrane, by in vitro interaction with newborn larvae of T. spiralis (NL), were evaluated analyzing the alterations in erythrocyte aggregation by digital image analysis and laser transmission in a new optical chip aggregometer. NL were obtained from CBi mice infected with T. spiralis . RBCs samples from healthy donors where in vitro exposed to NL (concentration (3000 ± 500) larvae/mL) to assess its effect on RBC aggregation. Individual cell Coefficient (C CA ) and aggregation parameter (S) were calculated by digitally processing RBC aggregate images, indicating the amount and size of…the erythrocyte aggregates present. Also, size distribution of aggregate was analyzed. Kinetic aggregation parameters (Amp750 and t1/2 ) were calculated with a new optical chip aggregometer. Results show significant alterations in erythrocyte aggregability due the in vitro action of T. spiralis larvae increasing incubation time. These results are possibly related to the loss of surface sialic acid as it is captured by NL. Obtained results suggest that NL could produce hemorheological alterations in the host, which could be related to thrombosis and anemia reported in some patients with trichinosis.
Abstract: While a number of studies have shown short-term beneficial effects of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for treating systemic scleroderma (SSc), there have been no reports on the very long-term usage of TPE as the sole systemic treatment intervention. We report the case of a male patient, originally diagnosed with limited systemic scleroderma (lcSSc) in early 1990, who has been undergoing regular plasmapheresis treatments for more than 22 years, beginning in late 1993. Prior to commencing treatment, the patient exhibited symptoms including severe gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with esophagitis, frequent Raynaud’s attacks, reduced lung function, and chronic chilling. With the…exception of mild residual Raynaud’s, all of the patient’s symptoms reversed after three years of regular TPE treatments and he remains in complete remission. While the typical explanation for the therapeutic benefits seen with TPE focuses on temporary reduction of circulating antibodies or other pathogenic factors, we propose instead an explanation based on abnormal blood rheology as a novel disease pathogenesis model for SSc.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the influence of oral acetylsalicylic acid on blood fluidity and infusion speed in the cancer patients with Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC). BACKGROUND: PICC is placed for prolonged chemotherapy of cancer patients. The fibrin sheaths, which consist of cellular substance and non-cellular substance, generate at the place of insertion and grow down all over the catheter. Finally they cover the vent of the catheter and lead to catheter dysfunctions such as the decrease of infusion speed. In addition, the high viscosity status of cancer patients could lead to acute embolization, which…adds to the high risk of death. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: This research was carried out between April 2013 and January 2014 in the second hospital of Xiangya, Central South University in Changsha, China. Initially 96 cancer participants with PICC were chosen and randomly allocated to experimental and control group. The participants of the experimental group were conducted route PICC maintain technique and took acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg per day after dinner, while the control group received route PICC maintain technique only. The infusion speed and hemorheology indexes of the two groups were tested before our study and at the end of the 2nd and 4th months with several instruments. RESULTS: Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that taking acetylsalicylic acid orally had significant main effect on high shear blood viscosity and red blood cell deformability index (P < 0.05), and it also had significant main effect as well as time effect on plasma viscosity (P < 0.05); and time had significant main effect as well as interaction effect with oral acetylsalicylic acid on low shear blood viscosity and red blood cell aggregation index (P < 0.05). Repeated measures ANOVA also showed that taking acetylsalicylic acid orally had significant main effect, time effect and interaction effect on infusion speed (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Oral acetylsalicylic acid could improve hemorheology condition and the infusion speed related to fibrin sheath in the cancer patients.
Keywords: Acetylsalicylic acid, hemorheology, infusion speed, fibrin sheaths, cancer patients, Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC)