Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 8, issue 2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The present work reports the preliminary results concerning an investigation on the effects of polycythemic hyperviscosity on arterial and venous peripheral hemodynamics, in patients affected by polycythemia. The study provides evidence for a multiple correlation among blood viscosity, hematocrit and venous capacity calculated at wrist. There is good predictivity for dependent variable values.
Abstract: The Authors studied the in vitro modifications of red blood cells elicited by increasing concentrations of calcium (Ca), the modifications obtained by the addition of calcitonin (CT), using the Scanning Electron Microscope (S.E.M.). Incubating blood samples with increasing calcium concentrations, echynocytes appear abruptly and become progressively more frequent. On the contrary echynocytes count decreased when CT (400 ng/ml)was added. These changes are accompanied by modifications of blood filtration, whose impairment due to calcium addition is restored by calcitonin. The in vivo investigation with intravenous calcium loads showed the capability of this ion in impairing filtration times, probably due to…worsened erythrocyte deformability. In vivo CT does not seem to show the clear haemorheological effect observed in vitro, probably due to the different Ca concentrations.
Abstract: Erythrocyte membrane fluidity in 12 diabetic patients (4 well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics, 4 insulin-dependent diabetics deprived of insulin for 16 to 24 hand 4 non-insulin-dependent diabetics) was studied by fluorescence polarization using 1.6 diphenyl 1,3,5 hexatriene as fluorescence probe. The following haemorheological parameters were measured in these patients : whole blood filtration, Hanss hemorheometer. There are discrepancies in the literature on the results from polarization studies in diabetics patients, and we were interested to find out wether these differences might depend on the type or the stability of diabetes. Our results indicate that, despite alteration in filterability found in some…diabetics, membrane fluorescence, polarization values did not differ between healthy controls and diabetics of whatever type.
Abstract: Dilute suspension of EDTAK2 anticoagulated red blood cells from 28 patients with polycythaemia vera and 22 healthy controls were filtered through 5 µm polycarbonate filters under a vacuum of 10 cm H2 O. The mean erythrocyte filtration times (EFT), taken as a measure of red blood deformability, were not statistically different in patients in comparison to controls. However a group of 39% of patients showed EFT two standard deviations above the mean of controls; the values were unrelated to MCV and MCH of erythrocytes.
Abstract: Red cell deformability (filterability) was studied in 17 diabetic patients and 8 healthy subjects by a modified Nuclepore filtration method. Under a pressure difference of 10 cmH2 O, diabetic red cells suspended in autologous plasma took longer (1.75 ± 0.44 msec; mean ± S.D.) than normal red cells (1.23 ± 0.07 msec) to pass through 5 µm filter pores. The indicated decreases of red cell filterability in the diabetics showed a correlation with increases in fasting blood glucose level (correlation coefficient 0.74) and also a correlation with increases in HbA1 content but with a lower correlation coefficient. In accord…with these results, measurements of oxygen partial pressure in venous blood, PvO2 , suggested increased capillary transit times in these patients; values obtained in 8 of the diabetic patients were 35.1 ± 8.6 mmHg, significantly lower than 44.6 ± 2.1 mmHg in the 8 healthy subjects. Effect of pentoxifylline on whole blood filterability was studied in 10 of the patients, in 8 of whom positive changes of blood passage time were obtained.
Keywords: diabetes, red cell deformability, venous blood oxygen tension
Abstract: Haemorheological study in Myocardial Infarction (MI) was done during January 1986 to April 1987. Parameters studied were plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), red cell filtrability, red cell aggregation and haematocrit. Data of thirty six MI patients were compared with thirty five normal cases, and it was found that there is a significant elevation in the levels of plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity and ESR. Although mean values of red cell aggregability and filtrability were elevated, no statistical significant difference was seen. Haematocrit values were not found to be different in both groups. Negative correlation coefficients…was observed between ESR and Myocardial Infarction suggesting that an increase in sedimentation of red cells may be an attributory factor in ischaemic heart disease.
Abstract: Erythrocyte filterability through pores of nominal 3 µm diameter was studied in 37 patients with microcytosis secondary to iron depletion. The index of filtration (IF) was dependent on both the mean cell volume (MCV) and the degree of anisocytosis (red cell volume distribution width; RDW) of the erythrocyte suspension. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) was found between IF and MCV + 1.62 RDW. When microcytosis is associated with anisocytosis, subpopulations of relatively large microcytes may have a disproportionate effect on filterability through 3µm diameter pores.
Keywords: Rheology, Erythrocyte deformability, Erythrocyte indices
Abstract: The degree of rheological benefit arising from microcytosis in polycythaemia is controversial. The filterability (3 µm diameter pores) and viscosity (241 s−l shear rate) of microcytic erythrocytes from 18 patients with polycythaemia were therefore compared with microcytes from 19 patients with iron deficiency and 12 patients with β -thalassaemia trait. In all three disorders, viscosity decreased as cell size decreased. Erythrocyte filterability was significantly impaired in polycythaemia compared with thalassaemia trait as a consequence of the greater degree of erythrocyte anisocytosis in polycythaemia. The beneficial rheological benefit of microcytosis is therefore reduced when the erythrocytes are not homogeneous in…size and contain sub-populations of relatively large cells.
Keywords: Rheology, Erythrocyte deformability, Erythrocyte indices
Abstract: A new instrument was developed by authors. The principle of this instrument is based on electrical conductivity method, and it may measure static or dynamic behaviour of red cell deformability at different shear stresses This instrument possesses advantages of satisfactory producibility, time-saving performance and economic in cost. All results can be given by a microcomputer. The models of different blood samples were tested. The obtained results were analysed and demonstrated that the instrument can indeed measure red cell deformability, furthermore, an experience formula of exponential relation between electrical conductivity and red cell deformability has been found. The result is consistent…with that obtained by B. S. Bull et al when they studied the relation between shear stress applied to red cells and red cell deformability with a new membrane aspiration technique and the folded cell traction technique(1).
Keywords: Red cell deformability, electrical conductivity, hematocrit, suspending medium