Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 7, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Three ionophores (A23187, valinomycin, and nystatin) were used in vitro to induce loss of K+ and water from human erythrocytes, thus causing cell dehydration with an increase in mean cell haemoglobin concentration and loss of filterability through pores of 5 µm diameter. Oxpentifylline (1 µmol/l, 10 µmol/l, 100 µmol/l, and 5 mmol/l) showed a concentration-dependent protective effect, reducing the loss of erythrocyte K+ and water and decreasing loss of filterability. This rheological action was independent of erythrocyte ATP and incubation temperature (18, 25 or 37°C). Erythrocyte dehydration is an important determinant of deformability so that membrane binding drugs…that alter cation flux and maintain cell hydration are of considerable rheological interest.
Keywords: Rheology, Erythrocyte deformability, Oxpentifylline, Ion channels
Abstract: Twelve patients suffering from hemiplegic migraine and 24 with common migraine were compared to matched controls in terms of blood and plasma viscosity, hematocrit, blood cell filterability, red cell aggregation and plasma colloid oncotic pressure. Results show that patients with hemiplegic migraine differ significantly from controls. Blood viscosity at native (but not at standardized) hematocrit, plasma viscosity, blood cell filterability, hematocrit and colloid oncotic pressure are all changed, suggesting a hemorheological deficit possibly due to disturbed blood volume regulation. In contrast, patients with common migraine show elevated high shear blood viscosity at standardized hematocrit, reduced hematocrit, raised red cell aggregation…and decreased colloid oncotic pressure. The clinical relevance of these new findings has yet to be evaluated.
Abstract: In 12 male patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and without polycythemia hospital admitted for respiratory failure, we evaluated, at baseline and at the first three hours after furosemide, the blood rheology, the global and partial ductances of CO2 and the acid-base parameters. The data obtained show that acute diuretic treatment reduces transfert ductance and changes blood rheology and acid-base balance. The causes of these results are examined in our report.
Abstract: Forty six patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and 20 matched controls were investigated for blood and plasma viscosity, hematocrit, red cell aggregation and blood cell filterability. A significant hemorheological deficit was detected in patients compared with matched controls. The abnormality is more pronounced in clinically acute than in non-acute disease. In a longitudinal study the red cell aggregation paralleled the clinical course. Blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and blood cell filterability followed the same pattern, however, without reaching the level of significance. It is concluded that hemorheological changes exist in rheumatoid arthritis as a result of the underlying chronic inflammatory process.…Red cell aggregation might be considered a practical bed side test to monitor the clinical course. Whether the changes in blood rheology in rheumatoid arthritis are of pathophysiological relevance needs yet to be elucidated.
Abstract: Determination of the optimal buffer for rheological studies of sickle cells is of particular importance for in vitro screening of potential anti-sickling compounds and for ex vivo studies of erythrocyte deformability in patients with sickle cell disease. We have shown that sickle cells can be incubated in HEPES buffered saline (20 mmol/l HEPES with 5 mmol/l glucose) for 6 hours at 37°C without significant change in morphology, haemolytic rate, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, osmolality, pH, ATP content, filterability through 5 µm diameter pores, and oxygen affinity. Continuous mixing of sickle cells during the 6 hour incubation was…essential to maintain stable values for oxygen tension and erythrocyte rheology.
Abstract: Intravascular factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia secondary to vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have evaluated blood and plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation. along with hematocrit and fibrinogen levels. in patients with SAH, Fibrinogen, plasma viscosity. and zeta sedimentation ratio (an index of red cell aggregation) reached their maximum levels during the period of 4 to 7 days following SAH. This is the same time period when clinically-evident cerebral vasospasm is common. Thus, hemorheological factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia following SAH.
Abstract: A molecular rheological parameter (lipid fluidity) of erythrocyte membrane was investigated in diabetic patients by means of fluorescence polarization method using two fluorescent probes: DPH and TMA–DPH which are localized in different lipid compartments of red cell membrane. Other rheological parameters: plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation and filterability were simultaneously determined. Despite significant alterations in plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation, no important modifications in the membrane fluidity was observed in diabetic patients. The only significant change suggesting an increase in membrane fluidity was observed with TMA–DPH as fluorescent probe in diabetic patients with good metabolic control. Some of the…possible factors explaining our data and the opposite results previously reported are discussed with regard to both standardization of methods and metabolic aspects in diabetic patients.
Abstract: Measurement of erythrocyte deformability is influenced by erythrocyte mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration. Buffers used in rheological studies should therefore cause minimal alteration to these erythrocyte indices. For the study of human erythrocytes, the optimal concentration of phosphate in phosphate buffered saline was found to be 50 mmol/l at pH 7.4 and osmolality 290 mmol/kg. HEPES buffered saline (HEPES concentration 5-40 mmol/l, pH 7.4, osmolality 290 mmol/kg) also maintained satisfactory erythrocyte indices. Both buffers can be recommended for studies of erythrocyte rheology although the temperature dependence of the dissociation constant of HEPES necessitates strict control of the…working temperature.
Abstract: The reduced red cell deformability which has been demonstrated in badly controlled diabetic patients is an end point resulting from different abnormalities. Moreover, diabetes is an heterogeneous disease that is associated with various pathological alterations. This review outlines some of the numerous factors influencing blood rheology in diabetes mellitus. The volume, membrane, intracellular milieu, and life span of the red cells are abnormal; all of these parameters may be linked with the cell rheological properties. The diabetic population is heterogeneous. Blood glucose varies from subject to subject and in the same patient from time to time. Plasma insulin may be…low (in type I insulin dependent patients) normal or even high (in type II non insulin dependent obese diabetic patients). A lot of metabolic substrates and hormones are modified and liable to influence rheological properties of the red cells. Diabetes is often associated with hyperliproteinemia, arterial hypertension, cardio-vascular disease, or renal insufficiency - all of these conditions may modify blood rheology. Finally, the variability of treatments used, such as modification of the diet, and the various forms of insulin therapy, is another parameter which has to be taken into account. Therefore, attempts should be made to study diabetic patients that have been selected as carefully as possible and to use clinical models in which the above variables can be controlled or are known to be negligible in their effect.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Hemorheology, Red blood cell