Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 66, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: To evaluate the effectiveness of high-resolution contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to diagnose early post-operative complications in an interdisciplinary intensive care unit. In 50 patients (male 32; female 18) 64 CEUS examinations were performed in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting to detect post-operative complications. Multi-frequency transducer (1–5 and/or 6–9 MHz) were used. All 64 examinations were performed by one experienced examiner. CEUS findings were compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) findings. CECT images were acquired within 1–24 hours after CEUS examination in arterial and portal-venous phases of the abdomen using either a 16-slice computed tomography scanner or a 128-dual slice computed…tomography scanner. In 56 out of 64 cases (88%) the CEUS-based diagnosis corresponded with the CECT diagnosis. Vascular stenosis in hepatic arteries and portal veins were recognised in both imaging modalities but were evaluated differently [5 cases]. In 3 cases (5%) small peripheral splenic infarction, retroperitoneal hematoma and fluid collection around the liver were not diagnosed by CEUS. CONCLUSION: CEUS in an ICU setting enables a reliable detection of postoperative abdominal complications as compared to CECT.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using a high-end ultrasound system in the characterization of endoleaks after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this mono-center study, 41 patients were retrospectively analyzed after being examined using a modern high-end ultrasound system (RS80A with Prestige, Samsung Medison Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea). The maximum diameters of the aneurysms were measured in two planes (right-left and ventral-dorsal). The performance of Color Doppler in comparison to CEUS was evaluated and CEUS was considered as the gold standard in endoleaks detection. RESULTS: 41 patients were included…in the study. Between June and December 2016, mostly male patients (n = 38; 92,7%) were examined, corresponding to the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the population. Average age was 75±8 years (range 58–100 years). Average diameter of the treated aneurysm-sacs was 5,04±1.5 cm (range 2.7–10.5 cm) in the right-left plane and 4,75±1.36 cm (range 2.8–8.9 cm) in the ventral-dorsal plane. Using CEUS as the gold standard endoleaks could be detected in 28 patients (68,3%) with 13 patients not showing an endoleak after EVAR. Color Doppler showed a sensitivity of 32.1%, a specificity of 92.3%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 38,7% compared to CEUS being the gold standard. CONCLUSION: CEUS after EVAR using a modern high-end ultrasound system is a fast and cost-effective imaging modality for the detection and follow-up of endoleaks with superior benefits compared to Color Doppler. CEUS remains the initial standard-of-care examination for follow-up.
Keywords: Endoleak, EVAR, CEUS, high-end ultrasound system
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify the indications for CEUS in renal imaging in an interdisciplinary ultrasound department. METHODS: 102 CEUS examinations of the kidney in 82 patients between September 2014 and July 2016 were analysed regarding the indication for ultrasound. CEUS was performed by one experienced sonographer agent after bolus injection of 1.0 up to 2.4 ml sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles using multifrequency probes with Contrast Harmonic imaging. RESULTS: CEUS of the kidney was performed in patients from 20 to 87 years. 44% of the patients had a stage 3 of chronic kidney disease and higher 38% of the…patients had undergone a renal transplantation. No adverse events were observed. 54% of examinations were requested by nephrologists. The remaining by surgeons, oncologists or gastroenterologists. In 47% the objectives were the evaluation of complex renal cysts, in 31% the analysis of kidney perfusion, in 19% the assessment of solid renal masses. The remaining were perirenal tumours (2%) and infection (1%). CONCLUSIONS: CEUS is a good diagnostic alternative for patients with impaired renal function, complicated cysts, infections, solid renal lesions and after renal transplant.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in histologic prediction of focal liver lesions after liver transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 focal liver lesions in 10 patients after liver transplantation were scanned using CEUS and the CEUS results were compared with the histopathological results. RESULTS: Among 10 focal liver lesions, 7 proofed to be histopathological benign and 3 lesions proofed to be histopathological malignant. All lesions (100%) were correctly report as benign or malignant in the report of the CEUS examination. CONCLUSION: CEUS can be helpful in the differentiation of benign…and malignant focal liver lesions in patients after liver transplantation and can be used in clinical management of focal liver lesions.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To analyse the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with vascular complications and transplant rejection compared to histopathological results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study consisted of 45 retrospectively analysed patients that underwent liver transplantations between January 1993 and December 2015 and developed post-transplant vascular complications with transplant rejection. CEUS examinations took place between September 2006 and December 2015. CEUS findings were correlated with histopathological results. RESULTS: CEUS showed a sensitivity of 61.5%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 86,5% in…the detection of vascular complications with post-transplant rejection. 5 examinations were reported as normal whereas the histopathological result showed a transplant rejection (false-negative). CONCLUSION: CEUS might be a useful additional non-invasive technique for the assessment of vascular complications with post-transplant rejection in patients after liver transplantation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a valuable tool in the diagnostic approach of focal liver lesions, but occasionally subjective and observer-dependent. Semiquantitative evaluation of dynamic CEUS (DCEUS) with standardised software programmes such as Dynamic Vascular Pattern (DVP) could help to improve diagnostic accuracy and objectivity in liver tumour assessment. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of DVP in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DVP images of 52 focal liver lesions [30 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 15 intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinomas (ICCs), 7 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs)] were analysed by four blinded observers…with different levels of CEUS-experience. Diagnostic accuracies for the assessment of dignity and entity were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for detection of malignancy with DVP were 48.4% /67.8% /92.7% and 29.3%, respectively. Total diagnostic accuracies for dignity/entity were 63.9% /38.5% (HCC: 58.3% /25.8%; ICC: 73.3% /50%; FNH: 67.9% /67.9%). Interreader-agreement was moderate (κ = 0.42–0.58). Differential diagnosis between ICC and HCC was most challenging. CONCLUSION: Although developed to improve diagnostic accuracy and objectivity in the assessment of focal liver lesions, DVP alone seems insufficient for differential diagnosis of HCC, ICC and FNH and cannot replace the skills of an experienced observer.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between quantitative parameters on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pathological prognostic factors in patients with breast invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 102 patients with pathologically proven IDCs were retrospectively enrolled and all were preoperatively evaluated by CEUS. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the SonoLiver® software. On the parametric imaging, the data of rise time (RT), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (mTT) and maximum intensity (IMAX) were recorded. Pathological prognostic factors, including histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph node status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erb-B2 and Ki-67 expression…were evaluated. Correlation of enhancement parameters with pathological prognostic factors was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and operator consistency was evaluated. RESULTS: The RTs and TTPs for lower grade IDCs (grade I or II) and higher histological grade IDCs (grade III) were 9.3 s±3.9 vs. 11.4 s±5.4 (p = 0.016), 11.6 s±6.1 vs. 14.7 s±7.7 (p = 0.028), respectively. The RTs for positive-C-erbB-2 expression and negative-C-erbB-2 expression IDCs were 10.1 s±4.5 vs. 11.9 s±6.0 (p = 0.047). The IMAX showed statistical difference between IDCs with negative-ER and those with positive-ER (p = 0.003), as well as IDCs with negative-PR and those with positive-PR (p = 0.019). The ROC analysis showed that, for the differentiation ER expression, the cut-off point for IMAX was 648.8% with an Az value of 0.718 (95% CI: 0.599–0.836), and the sensitivity and specificity were 63.6% and 70.2% respectively. The intra-operator consistency of the RT, TTP, mTT and IMAX were excellent with an overall ICC of 0.893, 0.858, 0.984 and 0.800, respectively (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of CEUS may be a useful and objective method in predicting pathological prognostic factors in breast IDCs.
Abstract: AIM: Comparison of different ultrasound elastography techniques for detection of changes after sclerotherapy within venous malformations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In patients with venous malformations sonography was executed at exactly the same position prior to and after ethanol-gel sclerotherapy. Both examinations included B-Mode, vascular sonography with Color-Coded Duplex Sonography, and additional sonography with different elastography techniques (strain, qualitative and quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography) with a linear transducer (6–9 MHz). Qualitative elastograms were read in consensus and scored. Differences of elasticity scores were statistically analyzed, p -values <0.05 were regarded significant. RESULTS: Elasticity scores of…strain and qualitative ARFI elastography in 25 patients (21 females, averagely 24.4 years old) were comparable before treatment (p = 0.69). After therapy qualitative ARFI scores changed significantly compared to pre-treatment scores (p = 0.0017), whereas strain elastography scores revealed no significant changes (p = 0.13). Quantitative ARFI values obtained after sclerotherapy within the venous malformations were significantly higher compared to pre-treatment values (p = 0.049), and significantly higher to values obtained in surrounding tissue (p = 0.030). Comparison of pre- and post-treatment ARFI values of the surrounding tissue was not significant (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: Elasticity scores of qualitative ARFI elastography reliably detect ethanol-gel induced changes in venous malformations. Quantitative ARFI may be a tool for therapy planning, and for monitoring sclerotherapy outcome as well as the effect of sclerosing agents on malformation and surrounding tissue in patients with venous malformations.
Keywords: Venous malformation, elastography, elasticity score, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging, therapy control
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the efficiency of intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound (Io-CEUS) for assessment of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) during liver tumor surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on a total number of 18 patients out of over 500 patients who underwent combined liver tumor surgery and RFA of 27 hepatic tumors between 02/2011 and 12/2016. Io-CEUS was performed by bolus injections of up to 10 ml sulphur hexaflourid microbubbles for diagnostic purposes. To guide the RFA up to 20 ml microbubbles were applied to monitor the procedure and assess the ablation status finally. A fully avascular area or…absence of any residual vascularization intratumorally was considered technical success. These findings were correlated to findings of follow-up imaging results (CEUS, MRI, CT) at least 1 up to 40 months (mean 11 months) after surgery. RESULTS: 13 male and 5 female patients aged between 45–77 years (mean 59.2±17.1 years) with 26 malignant and one most probable benign hepatic lesion were treated with intraoperative RFA. Io-CEUS detected 23 preoperatively unknown liver lesions leading to a change in therapy in 13/18 cases (72,2%). All 27 treated lesions showed an avascular area immediately after RFA. According to follow-up imaging results (1 month – 3 years after surgery, mean follow-up time 11 months), 2/18 patients had local recurrences, 8 patients had distant intrahepatic recurrences or extrahepatic recurrence, 8 patients remained tumor-free. Thereby, a success rate of CEUS guided RFA of 89% could be obtained concerning the targeted liver lesions. CONCLUSION: Modern intraoperative ultrasound using B-mode and Io-CEUS is a valuable tool for optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic intraoperative liver procedures and ablative therapies.