Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 65, issue 2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The radial dispersion of red blood cells (RBCs) near the vessel wall can significantly affect the transport dynamics in small vessels. The radial dispersion of RBCs is mainly caused by collisions between RBCs and this can be enhanced by aggregation. The objective of this study is to numerically investigate on the effect of RBC deformability on the radial motion of individual RBCs in a range of flow rates. Immersed Boundary - Lattice Boltzmann Method was utilized to study the radial motion of RBCs in a two-dimensional flow domain. The RBC flow simulations were performed at 40% hematocrit in a microvessel…with diameter of 25μm and length of 100μm. The dispersion of less deformable RBCs was notably greater than that of normal RBCs at all flow rates and this effect seemed to be more pronounced when the flow rate was increased. The cell dispersion was higher near the vessel wall than the flow center regardless of flow rate and RBCs deformability. Thus, the dispersion of RBCs could be enhanced with flow rate and RBC rigidity. Our findings would be especially useful in investigating blood flows in arterioles and venules.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The prognostic scoring systems for mortality of intensive care patients estimate clinical outcome using several physiological and biochemical parameters. In altered hemodynamic conditions of critically ill patients, hemorheological variables may play a significant role in appropriate tissue perfusion. We investigated if hemorheological parameters are altered in critical status and if they could be markers of mortality. METHODS: 112 patients (67.8 ± 12 years, 58 males, 54 females) treated in intensive care unit with different non-surgical diseases were investigated. Routine laboratory parameters and prognostic scores were determined and hemorheological variables (hematocrit, plasma and whole blood viscosity, red…blood cell aggregation and deformability) were measured on the 1st and the 2nd day after admission. RESULTS: ICU scores predicted 35.2–41.3% mortality rate, real mortality in intensive care unit was 37.5%, while 30-day mortality was 46.6%. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) and red blood cell (RBC) deformability were lower, red blood cell aggregation was higher in septic than in nonseptic patients (p < 0.05). In septic patients calcium was increased, osmolality was decreased, while in nonseptic patients WBV and RBC aggregation were higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (p < 0.05). Worsening of RBC deformability from day 1 to day 2 predicted higher mortality (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Calcium and osmolality level were associated with outcome in sepsis. Whole blood viscosity, red blood cell aggregation and change in red blood cell deformability could predict mortality in nonseptic patients and they may add prognostic information over the ICU scores. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the benefit of our findings in clinical practice.
Keywords: Critically ill patients, sepsis, viscosity, red blood cell aggregation, red blood cell deformability
Abstract: While a number of studies have shown short-term beneficial effects of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for treating systemic scleroderma (SSc), there have been no reports on the very long-term usage of TPE as the sole systemic treatment intervention. We report the case of a male patient, originally diagnosed with limited systemic scleroderma (lcSSc) in early 1990, who has been undergoing regular plasmapheresis treatments for more than 22 years, beginning in late 1993. Prior to commencing treatment, the patient exhibited symptoms including severe gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with esophagitis, frequent Raynaud’s attacks, reduced lung function, and chronic chilling. With the…exception of mild residual Raynaud’s, all of the patient’s symptoms reversed after three years of regular TPE treatments and he remains in complete remission. While the typical explanation for the therapeutic benefits seen with TPE focuses on temporary reduction of circulating antibodies or other pathogenic factors, we propose instead an explanation based on abnormal blood rheology as a novel disease pathogenesis model for SSc.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging & Quantification (VTIQ) and Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules (TNs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 107 TNs in 107 patients were enrolled and analyzed. All of them were detected by conventional ultrasound (US) and confirmed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy or surgery. VTIQ and VTQ examinations were performed on each nodule. Thereafter the median and mean of shear wave speed (SWS) values in lesions on VTIQ and VTQ were computed (SWS-median and…SWS-mean). With cytological results of FNA and histological results adopted as the reference standard, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of VTIQ and VTQ in differentiation of TNs. RESULTS: Among the 107 lesions, 19 were papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 1 was medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and 87 were benign. In total lesions, AUROC-median in VTIQ was significantly higher than that in VTQ (0.851 vs.0.759; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: VTIQ and VTQ were equivalent in diagnosing TNs when using SWS-mean, whereas VTIQ showed better performance in comparison with VTQ when using SWS-median.
Abstract: At present there is no widely accepted biomarker for monitoring of vascular functions. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the association of some blood biomarkers with vascular reactivity in patients with peripheral arterial diseases (PAD). A prospective evaluation was made of 3 groups comprising a control group of healthy individuals, and patients with PAD caused by either atherosclerosis or Buerger’s disease. Microvascular perfusion was examined using laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous erythrocyte flux after iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The correlation of microvascular reactivity with endothelium-related biomarkers was assessed. ACh-induced and SNP-induced vasodilations were…significantly diminished in the PAD groups. The plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels of PAD patients were significantly higher than those of the control group, but asymmetric dimethylarginine, total antioxidant capacity and hydrogen sulphide levels were similar. Plasma NO level was negatively correlated with ACh and SNP-stimulated microvascular flow increase, whereas a positive correlation was detected with blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in all groups. These results indicate that a high plasma level of NO in PAD patients is associated with diminished endothelium-dependent and independent flow increase in the microvascular bed. An excessive amount of NO-induced nitrosative stress in an inflammatory condition that might be a reason for vascular dysfunction should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to PAD.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) for cytological Bethesda Category III thyroid nodules (TNs). METHODS: This retrospective study included 121 patients with 121 TNs classified as Bethesda Category III at fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and thereafter underwent surgery. The TNs were classified according to US TI-RADS category and the malignancy risk of each category was calculated. RESULTS: Surgical pathology confirmed 43 (35.5%) malignant and 78 (64.5%) benign TNs. The malignancy risks of categories 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, and 5 TNs were 0%, 4.0%, 12.5%, 62.2%, and 100%,…respectively. For those >10 mm (n = 55), the malignancy risks were 0%, 6.2%, 12.5%, 73.3%, and 100%, respectively, whereas for those ≤10 mm (n = 66), the risks were 0%, 0%, 12.5%, 56.7%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bethesda Category III TNs without suspicious US features or those ≤10 mm with only one suspicious US feature can be followed up with US.
Keywords: Thyroid nodule, ultrasound, thyroid imaging reporting and data system, Bethesda Category III, AUS/FLUS
Abstract: Dialysis patients present a cardiovascular risk substantially higher than general population, due to both traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Hemorheologic alterations have been extensively described in hemodialysis patients (HD), while little data on hemorheology exist about peritoneal dialysis patients (PD). Aim of our study is to characterize the hemorheological profile of 49 PD, and to compare these data with HD and healthy volunteers. PD showed an improvement of parameters related to macro-circulation (plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at 1-Hz, erythrocyte aggregation index and yield stress) when compared to HD, while microcirculatory function resulted severely impaired, as expressed by high values…for whole blood viscosity 200-Hz shear rate and lower erythrocyte deformability (ED). In conclusion, we found hemorheologic alterations in PD, with substantial differences with respect to HD; in particular, PD showed profound dysfunction in microcirculatory flow with impaired ED. This alterations may act as a risk factor for accelerated atherosclerosis and precipitate cardiovascular events, and it may have a detrimental effect in the peritoneal microcirculation promoting endothelial activation with subsequent fibrosis, leading to peritoneal membrane malfunctioning.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: RDW is an automatic value obtained with the blood count, and represents the erythrocytes dimension variation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in optimally medicated outpatients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) the RDW prognostic value regarding survival in a multivariable model including anemia and Nt-ProBNP. METHODS: 233 consecutive outpatients, LVEF <40%, clinically stable were followed-up for 3-years in an HF Unit. End-point was all-cause death. The RDW categorized according to the tertiles (T1 = <13.9; T2 14-15.2; T3> = 15.3). Anemia classified according to the WHO criteria. Cox survival model adjusted for clinical profile, optimal therapeutic, renal function, Nt-ProBNP,…etiology, atrial fibrillation, and anemia. RESULTS: (1) The 3-years death rate was 33.5%, and increased with the RDW tertiles (17.3%; 25%; 61.1%; p < 0.001). (2) The ROC curve for death associated with RDW (AUC 0.73; p < 0.001); (3) The adjusted death risk increased with the tertiles (Hazard-ratio ‘[HR] = 1.61; IC 95% 1.09–2.39; p = 0.017). RDW> = 15.3 had greater adjusted death risk than T1 (HR = 2.18; 95% CI 0.99–4.8; p = 0.05) and T1+T2 (HR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.13–2.09; p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: RDW determined in optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF, during dry-state, is a strong, cheap, and independent predictor of long-term survival.
Abstract: Possible changes in the erythrocyte membrane, by in vitro interaction with newborn larvae of T. spiralis (NL), were evaluated analyzing the alterations in erythrocyte aggregation by digital image analysis and laser transmission in a new optical chip aggregometer. NL were obtained from CBi mice infected with T. spiralis . RBCs samples from healthy donors where in vitro exposed to NL (concentration (3000 ± 500) larvae/mL) to assess its effect on RBC aggregation. Individual cell Coefficient (C CA ) and aggregation parameter (S) were calculated by digitally processing RBC aggregate images, indicating the amount and size of…the erythrocyte aggregates present. Also, size distribution of aggregate was analyzed. Kinetic aggregation parameters (Amp750 and t1/2 ) were calculated with a new optical chip aggregometer. Results show significant alterations in erythrocyte aggregability due the in vitro action of T. spiralis larvae increasing incubation time. These results are possibly related to the loss of surface sialic acid as it is captured by NL. Obtained results suggest that NL could produce hemorheological alterations in the host, which could be related to thrombosis and anemia reported in some patients with trichinosis.