Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 56, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Metamizole (MET) is an analgesic and antipyretic medicine, it is not used as an antiplatelet drug. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the antiplatelet effect of MET and the possible interactions between the drugs. METHODS: In our in vitro investigations different concentrations of ASA and MET solutions were added to blood. To examine the interactions MET and ASA were added together. In our in vivo crossover study intravenous MET, oral ASA or both drugs together were administered. Epinephrine and adenosine-diphosphate induced platelet aggregation was determined…by optical aggregometry. RESULTS: Epinephrine-induced aggregation was completely inhibited in all ASA and MET concentrations in vitro. Lower, ineffective concentration of MET prevented the antiplatelet effect of ASA. The inhibition was completely restored when higher concentration of ASA was used or when ASA was added first. Our in vivo study showed that in the MET group rapid onset of inhibition was developed and there was no inhibition after one day. In the ASA group platelet aggregation decreased slowly but still had significant inhibitory effect after 72 hours. Combined therapy showed similar changes to the MET group. CONCLUSION: Antiplatelet effect of MET and ASA did not differ significantly in vitro. The observations may indicate a competitive interaction between the two drugs. The in vivo experiments showed that intravenously administered MET is an effective antiplatelet drug and can be considered as a therapeutic alternative, when ASA cannot be used in oral form.
Abstract: Pieces of epidemiological evidence have supported that moderate red wine consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases (French-paradox). Our previous in vitro experiment has demonstrated favourable hemorheological effects of red wine, alcohol-free red wine extract and ethanol. Thirty-nine healthy, non-smoking male volunteers between 18–40 years were assigned into two groups: control group had drunk water, while red wine group had consumed 2 dl of red wine each day at dinner for 3 weeks. No alcohol had been drunk for one week prior to the study. Blood was obtained in the morning of the first and last day. Hematocrit (Hct), plasma…(PV) and whole blood viscosity (WBV) (Hevimet 40 capillary viscometer), red blood cell (RBC) aggregation (Myrenne and LORCA aggregometer) and deformability (LORCA ektacytometer) were measured and Hct/WBV ratio was calculated to determine oxygen carrying capacity. Hct was adjusted to 40%. Hct and PV were not affected. WBV remained unchanged in controls, but it considerably decreased in the red wine group compared to the 3-week control group, while Hct/WBV ratio became significantly higher in the red wine group compared to the control (p < 0.05). RBC aggregation significantly decreased in the red wine group and became significantly lower compared to the 3-week controls (p < 0.05). Red wine significantly increased RBC deformability (p < 0.05) at high shear stress. Our results show that moderate red wine consumption has beneficial effects on hemorheological parameters which may contribute to the French-paradox.
Keywords: Red wine, moderate consumption, plasma and whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability
Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent and specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Tumor cells can escape from immune attack by secreting suppressive cytokines which solely or cooperatively impair the immune function and microrheological properties of DCs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) has been identified as a major cytokine in the tumor microenvironment. To determine the effects of TGF-β1 on mature DCs (mDCs) from microrheological viewpoint, cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 . The results showed…that the impaired microrheological parameters, including osmotic fragility, electrophoretic mobility, deformability, membrane fluidity, F-actin organization and so on, as well as motilities of mDCs relied heavily on TGF-β1 concentration. Moreover, these changes were correlated with the expression levels of fascin1, cofilin1, phosphorylated cofilin1 and profilin, this could be one of the crucial aspects of immune escape mechanisms of tumors, hinting that the signal pathway of TGF-β1 should be blocked in appropriate way before performing DCs-based immunotherapy against cancer. It is clinically important to understand the biological behavior of DCs and immune escape mechanism of tumor as well as how to improve efficiency of the anti-tumor therapy based on DCs.
Abstract: The present study compared the hemorheological properties between Epo-TAgh mice (a model of erythropoietin deficient mice) and wild-type (WT) control mice. Blood viscosity was determined at several shear rates using a cone-plate viscometer at native and adjusted hematocrit (i.e. 40%). Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was measured by ecktacytometry at several shear stresses and RBC aggregation properties by backscattered technique at adjusted hematocrit (i.e. 40%). Epo-TAgh mice had severe anemia (very low hematocrit), decreased blood viscosity at native hematocrit and slightly reduced RBC deformability at high shear stresses in comparison with WT mice. Blood viscosity at adjusted hematocrit…(i.e. 40%) was not different between WT and Epo-TAgh mice. RBC aggregation did not differ between the two mice models. These findings suggest a role of erythropoietin in the regulation of RBC deformability.
Abstract: Fibrinogen constitutes an important plasma glycoprotein involved in hemostasis and in inflammation. Previously, we have shown that at physiological concentrations, soluble fibrinogen is able to modulate the pattern of neutrophil activation. This led us to propose that under these conditions, fibrinogen could as well interfere with the adhesive behaviour of circulating neutrophils which is of utmost importance in their recruitment to the vascular wall during inflammatory processes. To address our working hypothesis, in vitro adhesion assays were here performed in a flow chamber by using primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and neutrophils isolated from peripheral venous…blood of healthy human donors. In the presence of a physiological concentration of soluble fibrinogen (300 mg/dL), we observed that despite the number of neutrophils rolling on an activated endothelium was not affected, their rolling velocity was increased in comparison to that of non-activated neutrophils. Consequently as expected, the number of fibrinogen-treated neutrophils adhering to activated HUVEC monolayers was significantly diminished. Overall, we have here demonstrated that at least in vitro, soluble fibrinogen under physiological concentrations is able to modulate the interaction of neutrophils with the vascular endothelium. In vivo studies will enable us in the future to study the physiological relevance of these findings and further to understand the mechanisms underlying this function.
Abstract: This article has been retracted. The correct version of this article has been published in: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 55 (3) (2013), 349-358, DOI: 10.3233/CH-121644.http://iospress.metapress.com/content/30h6436676866520/.
Keywords: T lymphocytes, oxidized LDL, cardiac troponin T, C-reactive protein, acute coronary syndromes, longitudinal study
Abstract: Since Landsteiner's discovery of ABO blood groups, RBC agglutination has been one of the most important immunohematologic techniques for ABO and RhD blood groupings. The conventional RBC agglutination grading system for RhD blood typings relies on macroscopic reading, followed by the assignment of a grade ranging from (-) to (4+) to the degree of red blood cells clumping. However, with the new scoring method introduced in this report, microscopically captured cell images of agglutinated RBCs, placed in a microchannel chip, are used for analysis. Indeed, the cell images' pixel number first allows the differentiation of agglutinated and non-agglutinated red blood…cells. Finally, the ratio of agglutinated RBCs per total RBC counts (CRAT) from 90 captured images is then calculated. During the trial, it was observed that the agglutinated group's CRAT was significantly higher (3.77−0.003) than that of the normal control (0). Based on these facts, it was established that the microchannel method was more suitable for the discrimination between agglutinated RBCs and non-agglutinated RhD negative, and thus more reliable for the grading of RBCs agglutination than the conventional method.
Abstract: Apelin is a hypotensive peptide. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation were previously demonstrated to be altered in various hypertension (HT) models. In the present study, we investigated possible alterations in RBC deformability and aggregation in response to apelin in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control (C), Hypertension (HT), Apelin, and Apelin + Hypertension (Apelin + HT). HT was induced by injection of DOCA-salt (25 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 4 weeks, whereas apelin was administered (200 μg/kg i.p.) for 17 days. RBC deformability and aggregation were determined using an ektacytometer. Blood pressure was…monitored using a tail cuff system. Systolic blood pressure was decreased in the Apelin and Apelin + HT groups and increased in the HT group. RBC deformability was not significantly altered in the HT group. Apelin administration induced a statistically significant increase in RBC deformability in control animals, whereas erythrocytic deformability in the Apelin + HT group was decreased compared to the Apelin group. RBC aggregation of hypertensive animals was reduced compared to controls. Apelin administration induced increased RBC aggregation in hypertensive rats. Our results showed favorable effects of apelin on RBC deformability in control animals, but not in hypertensive rats.