Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 4, issue 6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: A constant pressure head (200 Pa) technique is described for measuring blood filtration rate at 23 µl intervals using optical detection of the liquid meniscus. Results obtained in 11 controls and 15 vascular disease patients were compared with the results using three established methods (Hemorheometre, whole blood filtration, and filtration of buffy coat depleted cells in prefi1tered plasma). The comparison of the four techniques showed, that although each was sensitive to different factors, they detected similar differences between controls and vascular disease patients, suggesting complex changes in the properties of the blood, including red cell deformability. Experiments using the…new method suggested a time and pressure dependent reversible clogging-unclogging process during filtration, which was a significant determinant of the filtration rate even at low leucocyte concentrations (0.1 × 109 /l) and low filtered volumes (100 µl).
Keywords: blood filtration, red cell deformability, erythrocytes, leucocytes
Abstract: In ten patients with intermittent claudication, Oxpentifyl1ine treatment was found to to have two effects beneficial to oxygen transport. It improved blood filterability ex vivo by 40% with presumed benefits to blood flow in vivo . Secondly, Oxpentifylline facilitated oxygen release from the blood by decreasing haemoglobin-oxygen (Hb–O2 ) affinity. The P50 in vivo value rose by 1.8 mm Hg to 30.5 mm Hg, thus increasing oxygen availability per unit volume of blood by 4.7%. The ability to influence Hb–O2 affinity using normal doses of a safe drug has not previously been described. The combination of…improvements in both of these variables should markedly enhance tissue oxygen supply in patients treated with Oxpentifylline for intermittent claudication. This ability to improve blood flow and to increase oxygen release could have great significance in many other clinical disorders resulting from tissue hypoxia.
Abstract: The effects of increasing fibrinogen concentration on low shear rate viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and aggregation characteristics of erythrocyte suspensions were studied. The results show a good correlation between the techniques. The main emphasis however, was on the equivalent effects of fibrinogen degradation products(FDP) generated by plasmin. It was found that the early FDP were less effective than fibrinogen, and that later FDP were even less effective though they still possessed some viscometric influence. On the other hand, when mixed with fibrinogen all the FDP showed quantitatively similar viscometric effects enhancing that of fibrinogen alone.
Abstract: In order to clarify the cause of a high variation of hematocrit values, the effects of undeformable red cells on trapped plasma volume were studied. The volume was determined for [Vettore, L., Falezza, G., Demateus, M.C., Cetto, G. and Zandeziacoma, M. A new method for the determination of sodium and pottasium in human red blood cells using indocyanine green as a marker for trapped plasma. Clinica chimica Acta , 55 , 345–351, 1974] the mixture of normal cells and undeformable cells which had been prepared by glutaraldehyde fixation and [International committee for standardization in hematology expert panel on blood cell…sizing. Recommendation for reference method for determination by centrifugation of packed cell volume of blood. J. Clin. Pathol. 33 , 1–2, 1980] heated cells from 46 to 50°C for 10 minutes. Trapped plasma volume increased exponentially with the increase in the number of undeformable cells. Subpopulation of completely undeformable cells fixed with glutaraldehyde in the cell suspension augmented the amount of trapped plasma volume in the microhematocrit as compared with that of a whole population of cells heated at elevated temperature. The findings indicated that marginally reduced deformability may lead to spurious values for the hematocrit using spun hematocrit.
Abstract: Haemorheological factors were studied in 30 patients affected by retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and in 25 control subjects. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and haematocrit were increased in RVO patients compared with controls. Blood filterability was reduced in RVO patients compared with controls. However, when evaluating the type of capillaropathy at fluorescein angiography, blood and plasma viscosities were altered both in patients with evidence of capillary non perfusion and in patients without such complication. Reduction of blood filterability showed statistical significance only in patients with capillary non perfusion. This finding suggests that reduced blood filterability might be a causal…factor in the development of capillary non perfusion in RVO patients.
Keywords: Blood viscosity, red cell filterability, retinal vein occlusion
Abstract: Evidence that blood rheology is a causative factor in venous thrombosis of the leg and retina is reviewed. The sites of thrombosis suggest low-shear conditions which favour red cell aggregation, which may potentiate venous stasis and thrombogenesis. Venous thrombosis is also associated with high levels of haematocrit and fibrinogen, which promote red cell aggregation. Reduction in haematocrit or fibrinogen levels appears to reduce the incidence or extent of leg vein thromboembolism. Increased levels of haematocrit and fibrinogen may also promote thrombosis by activation of haemostasis, as well as by promoting venous stasis.