Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 4, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Erythrocyte deformability in 39 patients with polycythaemia vera was studied by cell filtration through polycarbonate membranes of 3 µn and 5 µn pore diameter and by the measurement of erythrocyte bulk viscosity. Classification of patients according to erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV 90+ fl - 11 patients; MCV 78–89 fl - 17 patients; MCV < 75 fl - 11 patients) revealed a clear relationship between erythrocyte size and deformability. Reduction in erythrocyte size was associated with improved erythrocyte deformability as measured by both filtration and viscometric techniques so that microcytosis is unlikely to be a rheological hazard in patients with…polycythaemia vera.
Abstract: The modification of erythrocyte deformability, observed when one adds pentoxifylline in vitro, are studied using two methods. The filtration method (Hanss hemorheometer) allows, from filtration time measurements, to determine a filtration parameter. The viscometric method (Couette viscometer) allows, from shear-thinning measurements, to evaluate a viscometric parameter. These two parameters, which can characterize, to a certain extent, red blood cell deformability, are compared statistically. Furthermore, using those methods, the effect of pentoxifylline is evaluated on normal cells.
Keywords: red cell deformability, viscometry, filtration, pentoxifylline
Abstract: Although blood clotting is often referred to as shear dependent, there are little experimental data to support this. In a set of experiments fresh, non-anticoagulated blood was submitted to Couette flow. All surfaces in contact with blood had been siliconized. Samples were tested at three different shear rates i.e. shear stresses covering the physiological range. In each case clotting was detected by a 10% change of the otherwise constant reading in the x–y recorder. The results indicate a shear dependence of clotting time which decreases as shear increases.
Abstract: Intracellular calcium concentration and membrane lipid composition are known to have an effect upon erythrocyte deformability. A double blind cross over trial was therefore undertaken in ten healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that Nifedipine (30 mg/day), a calcium antagonist, affects erythrocyte filterability. The rigidity index of eryhrocytes, determined by an original initial flow rate method, remained the same throughout the Nifedipine period and the placebo period. neither plasma lipids nor erythrocyte membrane lipids were affected by nifedipine except for elythrocyte membrane phosphatidylethanolamine which might rise with Nifedipine.
Abstract: In the present study, the authors evaluated on different subjects the filtration of whole blood with either EDTA or heparin, and the filtration of red blood cells resuspended in autologous plasma with haematocrit adjusted at 20%. After use, the filtration membranes were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (S.E.M.). Use of whole blood and heparin gave the longest filtration times and, on S.E.M. examination, showed numerous membrane holes occluded by platelet plugs. Use of red blood cells diluted with plasma led to a lesser degree of membrane plugging, but was often associated with marked alterations of the erythrocyte shape, probably…resulting from more frequent microtrauma in the dilution procedure.
Keywords: erythrocyte filtration, anticoagulants, Scanning Electron Microscopy (S.E.M.)
Abstract: In order to provide practical help for workers in this field a study was undertaken to clarify the hither tho little researched influence of the following factors on blood viscometry: anticoagulant, time lapse withdrawal -measuring, and storage temperature. Blood from healthy volunteers was anticoagulated with heparin or EDTA, left standing either at 21°C or 4°C and measured at hours 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 after venepuncture in a Haake RV 100 viscometer. The results demonstrate that blood viscosity measurements a) are similar in terms of absolute value and reliability, regardless to the anticoagulant used (heparin or EDTA) if measured…without delay b) show a decreased reliability with increasing delay of measurement which is most pronounced at low shear c) remain most stable during longer delays of measurement if blood is cooled to 4°C.
Abstract: Final exams were chosen as a model for psychoemotional stress. 13 healthy candidates were tested for haemorheological parameters (blood and plasma viscosity, red cell filterability, red cell aggregation) firstly just before the most crucial examination and secondly 3 weeks after the successful exams. The results indicate that stress increases blood and plasma viscosity and decreases filterability, while it leaves red cell aggregation unaltered. It could be postulated that psychoemotional stress exhibits its negative potential on cardiovascular disease partly through its ill effects on blood rheology.
Keywords: Haemorheology, viscosity, red cell filterability, red cell aggregation, stress, cardiovascular risk factor
Abstract: The velocity of non-immune erythrocyte aggregation was determined by means of an automated rheoscope, consisted of an inverted microscope, a cone-plate viscometer, a TV image analyzer and a computer, in autologous plasma at a shear rate of 7.5/sec. As increasing the concentration of IgG and F(ab′)2 added to diluted plasma, the velocity of aggregation increased, resembling the accelerated aggregation in 5 cases of multiple myeloma. Fab- and Fc-fragments scarcely affected the velocity; on contrary, they inhibited the aggregation induced by IgG or F(ab′)2 as well as in multiple myeloma. As a plausible explanation of such inhibition, a competitive…mechanism is suggested.