Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 32, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: We evaluated late (4 hrs) effects of reperfusion on hemodynamics after 30 or 60 min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in a rat model. Spontaneously breathing animals (n=30) underwent occlusion of the SMA for 0 (sham), 30 (SMAO_30) or 60 min (SMAO_60) followed by reperfusion with normal saline. Abdominal blood flow (ABF), SMA blood flow (SBF), arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and SMA vascular resistance (MVR) were calculated at baseline and after 240 min reperfusion (240R). All animals survived in SMAO_30 and sham, two died in SMAO_60 after 120R. ABF…remained constant in all groups. SVR increased in SMAO_30 and sham and decreased in SMAO_60 at 240R. SBF was significantly lower after reperfusion in ischemia groups as compared to sham. After 120R, SBF had increased significantly in SMAO_60 versus SMAO_30. MVR increased significantly in SMAO_30 but not in SMAO_60 and sham at 240R. 60 minutes SMA occlusion revealed early hemodynamic changes of septic circulation with increased blood flow in the SMA, decreased SVR, and pseudo‐normalization of MVR. Prolonged observation periods are required to detect these significant changes which are overlooked when only studying 120 minutes of reperfusion as usually done.
Abstract: Diabetics have reduced fibrinolytic activity while chronic renal failure patients are prone to both haemorrhagic diathesis and reduced fibrinolysis. In the quest to find out what obtains when diabetics develop renal impairment, fibrinolytic activity was studied in 51 known diabetics consisting of 9 diabetics with normal renal function, 13 with mild renal impairment and 29 in chronic renal failure. No patient had end‐stage renal disease and none was on dialysis therapy. Plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC) was measured using clot weight method and euglobulin lysis time (ELT) as a measure of fibrinolytic activity was also measured. Our results show that PFC…and ELT did not differ significantly in the different groups of diabetics. There was also no correlation between the serum creatinine of all diabetics and PFC on one hand and ELT on the other hand. We conclude that Nigerian diabetics probably still benefit from enhanced fibrinolysis before they reach end‐stage renal disease.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Compound Dan‐shen Root Dropping Pill (CDRDP) (Tasly Group, Tianjing, China) on hemorheology and biorheology of dogs suffering from hyperlipidemia induced by high‐fat diet. Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups: the high‐fat diet group (H group); the control group (C group), fed with a standard laboratory diet. Six month later, six dogs in the H group were chosen as the drug‐taking group (D group), to which CDRDP was administered, fed with the same diet as H group. In the 4th month, blood was taken from the veins of…the dogs, and blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), RBC hemorheological indexes as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione transferase (GSH‐ST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in plasma and erythrocytes were measured. Compared with H group, TC, TG, plasma MDA levels, the whole blood viscosity, RBC osmotic fragility and the value of CHOL (cholesterol)/PL (phospholipid) of the membrane of D group decreased, however, erythrocyte GSH‐ST, histopathological changes in liver, deformation index (DI), orientation index (DI)or , small deformation index (DI)d , electrophoresis ratio and microfluidity of the membrane lipid bilayer of RBCs, increased distinctly. CDRDP can improve micro‐hemorheological characteristics, therefore has a significant therapy application of hyperlipidemia.
Abstract: In situations where capillary perfusion in skeletal muscles is limited, changes in blood flow play an important role. Especially alterations in intrinsic erythrocyte factors like red cell aggregation and deformability would increase blood flow resistance. In our study we investigated whether whole blood and plasma viscosity influence exercise tolerance during submaximal training and whether a difference can be realized between trained and untrained standardbred trotters. Venous blood from 42 healthy adult trotters (20 horses at the beginning of their training and 22 well trained horses) was investigated before, immediately afterwards and 30 minutes after submaximal exercise. In both groups…whole blood viscosity (WBV; LS30, Contraves, Switzerland) increased significantly (p<0.001) at all shear rates (94 s−1 , 2.4 s−1 , 0.7 s−1 ) and decreased after 30 minutes to baseline, as did plasma viscosity (PV; OCR‐D, Paar, Austria; p<0.001). No changes in WBV could be seen in hematocrit (40%) standardized samples. Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) indices increased (Myrenne, Germany; p<0.001). Creatin‐kinase (p<0.001), lactate (p<0.001), hemoglobine (p<0.001), heart rate and oxygen saturation (p<0.05) increased, while PH (p<0.05), and BE (p<0.001) decreased during the race. In our study, submaximal exercise was related to remarkable changes in hemorheologic variables in the single animal. It was also shown that exercise resulted in a more extensive change of fluidity in well trained horses in comparison to untrained animals, at least for low shear WBV and EA (p<0.05).
Abstract: Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), in comparison with general population, show a higher cardiovascular mortality, not fully explained by the “traditional” risk factors. Among the new factors that have been hypothesized, leukocytes might play an important role. In a group of patients with mild CRF we determined, at baseline and after in vitro activation with 4‐phorbol‐12‐myristate‐13‐acetate (PMA) and N‐formyl‐methionyl‐leucyl‐phenylalanine (fMLP), the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) beta2 ‐integrin pattern (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD18) by using indirect immunofluorescence with a flow cytometer. At baseline we observed an increase in the phenotypical expression of CD11b, CD11c and CD18 in CRF patients. In…normal subjects, after activation with both agents, we noted an increase of all adhesion molecules, while in CRF patients we found an increase in the expression of CD11b, CD11c and CD18 but not of CD11a. The altered behaviour of the PMN integrin pattern in mild CRF patients, likely reflecting a state of PMN activation, might have a pathophysiological significance, considering the high incidence of cardiovascular events in CRF.
Abstract: The present study was designed to compare cation‐osmotic haemolysis (COH) in normal versus low birth weight newborns during the first month of postnatal life. COH was assessed in 80 normal (NBW) and 45 low birth weight newborns (LBW). A significant decrease in COH in the solutions with low ionic strength (15.4–30.8 mmol.l−1 NaCl) was found in LBW in the early period after birth when compared with NBW (p<0.01; p<0.001). In the solutions with high ionic strength (123.2–154.0 mmol.l−1 NaCl), COH again was significantly lower in LBW than in NBW neonates (p<0.01; p<0.001). The differences in COH were still…present after both two weeks and one month of postnatal life but only in the solutions with the highest ionic strength (138.6–154.0 mmol.l−1 NaCl) (p<0.01; p<0.001). To conclude, our study demonstrates that COH is significantly lower in LBW than in NBW neonates. Furthermore, the latter show still lower values than adults. Finally, the relationship between COH and erythrocyte deformability is discussed.
Abstract: Altered renal function has been encountered in normoalbuminuric patient with type 2 diabetes. A search for alternative index that is more sensitive than microalbuminuria for early detection of diabetic nephropathy has been performed. In the present paper, compartmental functions of nephron namely creatinine clearance (CCr) reflecting glomerular function, fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) reflecting tubular function and intrarenal hemodynamics reflecting vascular function were assessed in 40 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria and in 10 type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria. In normoalbuminuric patients, glomerular function showed a low, normal or high CCr due to hyperfiltration. Tubular function revealed…a significantly elevated FE Mg. Vascular function was altered with preferential constriction of the efferent arteriole, intraglomerular hypertension and profound reduction in peritubular capillary flow. A greater degree of functional defect was observed in albuminuric patients. Defective functions of the nephron implies that renal tissue injury has already been present in normoalbuminuric state. FE Mg appears to be a sensitive marker for early detection of diabetic nephropathy. Significant reduction in peritubular capillary flow correlates inversely with the altered FE Mg. Such correlation favors the chronic ischemic concept of tubulointerstitial injury and therefore supports the tubular functional defect observed in type 2 diabetes.
Abstract: Our goal was to evaluate some plasma markers of platelet and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activation in a group of young adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the initial stage and after three months. We enrolled 49 AMI subjects aged<45 years and examined plasmatic levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4), β‐thromboglobulin (β‐TG), elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) using ELISA methods. PF4 and β‐TG were increased, compared to control subjects, both at the initial stage and after 3 months. In control subjects and in AMI patients, at both times of observation, there was a significant and positive correlation between the two platelet…parameters, while no correlation was present between each parameter and platelet count. In AMI patients there was an increase in elastase levels in comparison with the control group; this increase was evident at the initial stage and after 3 months. There was no difference in MPO levels between control subjects and AMI patients. In control subjects and in AMI patients there was a significant and positive correlation between elastase and MPO level, whereas no relationship was found between each marker and PMN count. Our data show that in young AMI patients the discharge treatment including antiplatelet drugs did not modify platelet activation and suggest the association of molecules able to inhibit PMN activation to the conventional therapy of these AMI patients.