Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 2, issue 3
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Haemorheological factors (blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, aggregation of red cells, rigidity of red cells) and biochemical factors (fibrinogen, albumin, cholesterol) were studied in 32 healthy women during normal pregnancies. Plasma viscosity was low, but increased with progress of gestation. Aggregation of red cells was very high, and fibrinogen was increased, while both parameters increased significantly with gestation time. Haematocrit and blood viscosity (measured at shear rate of 180 sec−1 ) decreased during the first half of pregnancy, but increased progressively during the second half of pregnancy. Some viscosity factors during the last weeks of gestation were not only significantly…higher than the normal values, but were significantly increased above the values observed during the earlier stages of pregnancy. In particular, during the last four weeks of gestation the values for aggregation of red cells were 252 ± 54 mm/hr, and for fibrinogen 423 ± 80 mg%. Thus, at least during the last stages of pregnancy, there existed a state of hyperviscosity. The following aspects are covered in discussion: inter-relation between blood pressure and blood viscosity, the role of increased blood volume, possible presence of a vasodilator substance counteracting effects of hyperviscosity, possible effect of hyperviscosity on foetus development, malformation, etc.
Keywords: normal pregnancy, blood viscosity, fibrinogen, aggregation of red cells, rigidity of red cells, hypertension, hyperviscosity and foetus
Abstract: A study was performed in fifteen patients with maturity-onset diabetes who had decreased erythrocyte flexibility as compared to controls. The patients were treated with isoxsuprine during 3 months. After this period only a reduction of blood viscosity at haematocrit 0.80 was found, indicating improved red cell flexibility. This might be explained by production of larger and more flexible erythrocytes.
Abstract: Cerebral blood flow was measured in four patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (three with homozygous and one with heterozygous genotype) before and long after Plasma-Exchange by isotopic technique. Plasma cholesterol dropped by 30% one day after Plasma-Exchange and was still reduced by 27% after one week. Plasma fibrinogen and globulin concentrations were decreased respectively by 36% and 26% after Plasma-Exchange,but returned to pretreatment values within few days. No change was observed in haematocrit. Mean Transit Time (M.T.T.) of both common and internal carotides improved respectively from 39.2±11 and 34.9±10 seconds (M±S.E.) to 33.8±8 (p<0.001) and to 29.5±5 (p<0.001) after Plasma-Exchange and…were still 35.4±8 (p<0.02) and 30.3±8 (p <0.01) one week after Plasma-Exchange. It is concluded that Plasma-Exchange in patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia beneficially improves cerebral blood flow.
Abstract: Erythrocytes must undergo considerable deformation to pass through the capillaries of the microcirculation. A decrease in the deformability of these cells could be especially detrimental to the patient with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Experiments were designed to separate the filtration abnormalities of plasma versus the red cell in PVD patients. Polycarbonate filters 25 mm in diameter with 3 or 5 micron pores and a high porosity (4 × 105 ) were used. To study the effects of red cells without plasma, they were suspended in a sodium chloride tris buffer at a hematocrit of 0.5%. The filtrate was passed using…only gravity and the results reported as the time in seconds for one milliliter to pass through the filter (FT). Forty-three PVD patients and 34 controls were studied. Suspensions of red cells in their native plasma at an hematocrit of 3.2% were studied to assess the influence of plasma factors. Matched blood types of patients and controls were also used in mixing studies on plasma and red cells. There was a small but significant increase in the FT of the PVD patient’s RBC. However, acellular plasma of these patients showed marked prolongation of filtration time which could account for all of the changes found in whole blood. In the mixing studies the PVD plasma had a prolonged FT and the plasma from the control patients had a normal FT regardless of which red cells were being studied. Although the PVD patient’s RBC may have a slightly prolonged FT, studies of acellular plasma and mixed samples demonstrate that the plasma is the main cause of the prolonged whole blood FT in the patient with PVD.
Abstract: Blood viscosity and corrected blood viscosity (viscosity of blood corrected to hematocrit of 45 %) were measured at a shear rate of 0.5 sec−1 in 85 normal, 20 mild pre-eclamptic, 15 severe pre-eclamptic and 10 diabetic (class A) pregnants. Viscosity in normal pregnancy decreased in the second trimester and increased in the third trimester. Corrected viscosity increased in the second trimester and its increased level persisted until the last of pregnancy. The mean levels of viscosity and corrected viscosity in the third trimester did not change in mild pre-eclampsia, but were significantly increased in severe pre-eclampsia as compared with…that of normal pregnancy. In diabetic pregnancy viscosity was not significantly different but corrected viscosity was significantly higher than that of normal one. These findings are in keeping with an increased tendency of forming red cell aggregates in severe pre-eclampsia and diabetic pregnancy and may suggest possible disturbance of microcirculation in low flow state under such abnormal pregnancies.
Abstract: The relative effects of three vinca alkaloids on the erythrocyte surface were assessed by evaluating erythrocyte aggregation. The time required for aggregation and the rate of sedimentation of formed aggregates was quantitated in systems utilizing Dextran, polybrene, and an antibody as the aggregation inducers. Vinca alkaloid inhibition of erythrocyte aggregation was demonstrated which appears to be concentration dependent. Vinblastine was more inhibitory than Vindesine or Vincristine. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that decreased deformability is a factor in vinca alkaloid inhibition of erythrocyte aggregation.
Abstract: The internal diameter (10) of small arteries, which play an important role as resistance vessels, is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. We studied effects of cervical sympathetic nerve section, electrical stimulation of this nerve and a-receptor blockade (phentolamine, iv) on 10 of central artery (CA) and marginal artery (MA) of the rabbit ear. Serial measurements of ID’s of CA and MA were made on angiograms of 13 anesthetized rabbits in a length of about 150 and 120 mm, respectively. Under the control condition, i.e., sympathetic nerve was intact, 10 tapered steeply at the proximal portion of both arteries. With…sympathetic nerve section, all sites of CA and MA were dilated above the control level. Particularly, 10 increased significantly about 4 times in CA at 50 mm and 3 times in MA at 40 mm from the bifurcation of both arteries. with 2 Hz electrical stimulation of the peripheral cut end of sympathetic nerve, CA and MA constricted nearly to the control levels in almost entire length. The relative magnitude of vasoconstriction was larger in CA than MA. When α -receptor blockade was administered following the sympathetic nerve section, further dilatation of 10 occurred in all sites of CA. This dilatation by α -receptor blockade was significantly dominant in the distal half of CA. From above results, we concluded that the sympathetic and humoral control in ID is nonuniform not only between CA and MA but also within each of these small arteries in the rabbit ear.