Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 7, issue 3
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to demonstrate of the influence of the adventitia on distribution of residual stresses in the human aorta. The biomaterial increase in media as well as in adventitia in the course of the aorta's growth is formed by an intussusceptive mechanism of growth. In children's aortas, formative elastin lamellae are wavy with high amplitude perpendicular to the aortic surface. In adults' aortas the waves become smoother (stepwise) towards the adventitia. Also introduced is the growth function, which characterizes the biomaterial growth and the interference between the media and adventitial layers. It is possible to…expect an extraordinary variability in the formation of the aortic wall tissue in the course of its growth as a result of metabolic and humoral influences and magnitude of the residual stresses in the course of growth.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of a contracting smooth muscle can be changed by changing its length. A viscoelastic material model was developed to predict the length-dependent stiffness changes when a constrained muscle is allowed to shorten under a constant external force. Three-dimensional finite element simulations were carried out to estimate the stiffness changes and compared to available experimental data. A good agreement was found indicating that the viscoelastic material model developed gives a valid representation of the length dependent stiffness changes of a smooth muscle. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the relative effects of material constants in the model…on the length dependent stiffness.
Keywords: Smooth muscle, viscoelastic, finite element analysis, stiffness
Abstract: This paper presents a constitutive law of the lumbar intervertebral disc to be described mathematically with the finite deformation theory. Mechanical behavior of the cadaveric lumbar disc obtained from continuous cyclic compression-tension tests and continuous cyclic axial torsion tests was formulated by the constitutive equation with a semi-circular shaped model. These equations were formulated with or without taking the nucleus pulposus into account. It was also confirmed that forward-backward bending behavior of the disc could be simulated numerically from these equations.
Abstract: Stiffness changes due to microdamage in the longitudinal and cross-sectional directions in a dog bone model under different loadings were investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Stiffness changes and severity of both longitudinal and cross-sectional type microcracks were estimated between the damaged and undamaged bone under four-point bending, torsion and tension. Finite element simulation results indicated that longitudinal damage was more severe than cross-sectional damage under axial tension and bending, and the opposite was true for torsional loading. However, for axial tension, the stiffness change due to cross-sectional microcracks remained constant.
Keywords: Microdamage, fatigue, finite element method, bone, simulation
Abstract: The finite element analysis method and a two-dimensional idealization were used to conduct a parametric study of the effect of the archwire slot (or insert) profile on the stresses in, deformation of, and efficiency of a model of a bonded edge-wise “combination-materials” type of orthodontic bracket. The results are consistent with a priori expectations and are qualitatively the same as those obtained by previous workers who used the two-dimensional photoelasticity stress analysis method. The results thus highlight a possible approach to improving the clinical performance of these brackets.
Keywords: Orthodontic bracket, debonding, finite element analysis, von Mises stress
Abstract: In this work the metallic ion release in oral implants with superstructures of different metals and alloys used in clinical dentistry has been determined. This study has been realized in a saliva environment at 37°C. The measurements of the ion release were carried out by means of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry technique. The titanium oral implant coupled with a chromium-nickel alloy releases a high quantity of ions and the implant coupled with the titanium superstructure presents a low value of ion release.
Keywords: Ion release, implants, metals, alloys, corrosion