Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 27, issue 6
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The method of formation of bioactive calcium-phosphate coating on medical titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V (3.5–5.3% V; 5.3–6.8% Al; balance –Ti) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has been developed. Evaluation of osteogenerating properties of the coating at fractures of the shaft of the femur on Wistar line laboratory rats has been performed. It has been established that the calcium-phosphate PEO coating accelerates osteogenesis and promotes the formation of a pronounced periosteal callus in the fracture area. The presence of calcium phosphates in the PEO coating surface layer significantly accelerates the growth of bone tissue on the titanium surface.
Abstract: Background: Chitosan and alginate are two natural and accessible polymers that are known to be biocompatible, biodegradable and possesses good antimicrobial activity. When combined, they exhibit desirable characteristics and can be created into a scaffold for cell culture. Objective: In this study interaction of chitosan-alginate scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells are studied. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were derived from human umbilical cord tissues, characterized by flow cytometry and other growth parameters studied as well. Proliferation and viability of cultured cells were studied by MTT Assay and Trypan Blue dye exclusion assay. Results: Besides chitosan-alginate…scaffold was prepared by freeze-drying method and characterized by FTIR, SEM and Rheological properties. The obtained 3D porous structure allowed very efficient seeding of hUMSCs that are able to inhabit the whole volume of the scaffold, showing good adhesion and proliferation. These materials showed desirable rheological properties for facile injection as tissue scaffolds. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that chitosan-alginate scaffold may be promising biomaterial in the field of tissue engineering, which is currently under a great deal of examination for the development and/or restoration of tissue and organs. It combines the stem cell therapy and biomaterials.
Abstract: Background: Curcumin possesses significant anti-atherosclerosis properties. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is already known as one of the most promising biomarkers of atherosclerosis. However, research on the effect of curcumin on regulating LCN2 expression in atherogenesis is very limited. The aim of the study was to investigate whether curcumin could alleviate atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice by down-regulating LCN2 expression. Methods: Fifty apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/− ) mice were fed with a western diet for 12 weeks and randomly divided into five groups: model group (Mod), positive control group (Lov, with 30 mg/kg/d lovastatin), three curcumin groups (CurL, CurM and CurH, with…40, 60 and 80 mg/kg/d curcumin), while 10 C57BL/6J mice were fed with a standard mouse chow diet as a control group (Con). LCN2 in serum and aorta, biomarkers of serum lipid and inflammation were determined and the plaque area of the atherosclerosis lesions was quantified. Results: CurM and CurH group were significantly lower than Mod group in terms of serum LCN2, lipid and inflammatory cytokine levels, plaque area and LCN2 expression in atherosclerotic lesions, similar to lovastatin treatment. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that dietary curcumin ameliorates western diet-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, which is related to LCN2 down-regulation, anti-hyperlipidemia effect as well as the inhibition of inflammation.
Abstract: The hydrogel produced by the reaction between a hyaluronic acid derivative (HAALD) and α , β -polyaspartylhydrazide (PAHy) hydrogel was used for lacrimal duct studies. In order to improve the mechanical properties of HAALD-PAHy hydrogel, glutaraldehyde (GA) was used as a candidate to increase the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. The optimum mass ratio of the GA and PAHy was 1:50. HAALD-PAHy and HAALD-PAHy-GA50 were both synthesized in PBSA solution and characterized by different methods including gel content and swelling, rheological analysis, in vitro degradation and in vivo degradation via rheological analysis. The storage modulus (G…′ ) of the HAALD-PAHy-GA50 hydrogel reached 3800 Pa, i.e. (2.9 ± 0.3 times higher than for HAALD-PAHy). The in vitro cytotoxicity test revealed that HAALD-PAHy-GA50 have a good biocompatibility and in vivo animal testing concluded that HAALD-PAHy-GA50 remains in the rabbit’s lacrimal duct for 28 days.
Abstract: Background: Recently, amniotic membrane (AM) as scaffold is accumulating much more attention in tissue engineering. It is well-known that the mechanical properties of the scaffold inevitably affect the biological process of the incorporated cells. Objective: This study investigates the stress relaxation and stress-strain characteristics of AM, which have not been sufficiently elucidated before. Methods: Porcine AM samples were prepared at four different AM regions and at three different directions. Ramp-and-hold and stretch-to-rupture tests were conducted on a uniaxial tensile apparatus. A nonlinear viscoelastic model with two relaxation coefficients is proposed to fit the ramp-and-hold data. Rupture…strain, rupture stress, and elastic modulus of the linear portion of the stress-strain curve are used to characterize the strength properties of the AM. Results: Sample direction has no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the AM. Samples at the ventral region has the maximum rupture strength and elastic modulus, respectively, 2.29 ± 0.99 MPa and 6.26 ± 2.69 MPa . The average of the relaxation coefficient for the fast and slow relaxation phases are 12.8 ± 4.4 s and 37.0 ± 7.7 s , respectively. Conclusions: AM is a mechanically isotropic and heterogeneous material. The nonlinear viscoelastic model is suitable to model the AM viscoelasticity and potential for other biological tissues.
Abstract: Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVM) are congenital lesions that contain a cluster of multiple arteriovenous shunts (NIDUS). Cardiac arrhythmia in CAVM patients causes irregular changes in blood flow and pressure in the NIDUS area. This paper proposes the framework for creating the lumped model of tortuous vessel structure near NIDUS based on radiological images. This lumped model is to analyze flow variations, with various combinations of the transient electrical signals, which simulate similar conditions of cardiac arrhythmia in CAVM patients. This results in flow variation at different nodes of the lumped model. Here we present two AVM patients with evaluation of…150 vessels locations as node points, with an accuracy of 93%, the sensitivity of 95%, and specificity of 94%. The calculated p -value is smaller than the significance level of 0.05.
Abstract: Background: Although cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is becoming popular, there are no finite analysis (FEA) studies involving a model of the full spine cervical (C1–C7) and determination of the influence of materials assigned to different parts of a specified TDR design on biomechanics of the model when TDR implantation is simulated. Objective: To determine the influence of assigned material combination, for a given cervical TDR design, on the kinematics of a model of the full cervical spine. Methods: A three-dimensional solid model of the full cervical spine was constructed, a finite element mesh was obtained…(INT Model), after which FEA was used to determine range of motion (ROM) at each of the intersegmental positions under three clinically-relevant loadings. INT model was then modified by simulated implantation of a notional endplates-and-mobile insert TDR design, at C5–C6 (TDR Model), and six clinically-relevant applied loadings were applied. Four variants of TDR Model were used, the difference between them being in the materials assigned to the endplates and the mobile insert. Under each of the loadings, principal motions at each of the intersegmental positions were determined and compared to counterpart motions when INT Model was used. Results: Comparison of ROM results of INT Model with relevant experimental results reported in the literature showed that the model was validated. With TDR Model, the smallest overall mean of the absolute values of the % change in principal intersegmental motions (relative to corresponding results in INT Model) was when the material assigned to both the endplates and the mobile insert was poly(ether-ether-ketone). Conclusion: In a simulated implantation of a notional endplates-and-mobile-insert TDR design in a model of the full cervical spine, material combination assigned to the parts of the design exerts a marked influence on the kinematics of the model.
Keywords: Cervical spine, total disc replacement, FEA, range of motion
Abstract: Background: Porous ceramic biomaterials structures are accepted components in applied research in the field of tissue engineering due to their mechanical properties being closer to structural tissue like bone or other properties related to improved biocompatibility. Objective: Hollow-strut, silica enriched zirconia foams were made by replication of polyurethane via impregnation with a suspension of zirconia-particles in polysiloxane. Methods: Two-step heat treatment allowed conversion of the precursor structures into hollow-strut ceramic foams which were tested for their biocompatibility using an osteoblast cell line. Further, the material was characterized via different spectroscopic (Raman-spectroscopy, EDX) and imaging (SEM, μ…CT) methods. Results: The material shows open cell porosity with hollow struts and sufficient structural integrity for handling and an expected chemistry as investigated by Raman and EDX spectroscopy. The material further supported cell growth and overall good biocompatibility. Conclusions: The investigated composite foam shows promising properties and is potentially interesting as candidate material for future bone tissue engineering applications.
Abstract: Background: Osseointegration of implant materials with surrounding tissues is crucial for their long-term success. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of physisorption of polymers on a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surface. In addition, the water contact angles on the physisorbed coatings were measured to compare the hydrophilicity of the modified surfaces. Methods: Ti6Al4V disks (13-mm diameter) were prepared to evaluate polymer adsorption on the alloy surface. The surface hydrophilicity was evaluated by contact angle (Θ) measurement. Physisorption of polymers on the surface was evaluated quantitatively by a colorimetric method.…Results: The largest contact angles were recorded on samples polished with silicon carbide papers of 1200 and 500 grit (Poli1200 and Poli500 samples: 97.3 ± 4.8 and 84.8 ± 11.0, respectively). Treatment of polished samples with Kroll solution remarkable reduced the contact angles to 46.8 ± 11.6 and 58.6 ± 11.5 for Poli500+Kroll and Poli1200+Kroll, respectively. Contact angles were further reduced in response to PolyNaSS and PAA treatment. Regardless of surface treatment, there was no significant difference in the contact angles on surfaces after SiC 500 and 1200 grit polishing. Conclusions: Physisorbed polymer coatings (such as PAA) on the Ti6Al4V surface can reduce the contact angle and improve the hydrophilicity and wettability of the alloy surface. Moreover, physisorption is a simple technique that does not require any special equipment.
Abstract: Background: Recent advances in tissue engineering have led to the development of the concept of bioprinting as an interesting alternative to traditional tissue engineering approaches. Biopaper, a biomimetic hydrogel, is an essential component of the bioprinting process. Objective: The aim of this work was to synthesize a biopaper made of fibrin-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for application in skin bioprinting. Methods: Different composition percentages of the two biopolymer hydrogels, fibrin-gelatin, have been studied for the construction of the biopaper and were examined in terms of water absorption, biodegradability, glucose absorption, mechanical properties and water vapor transmission. Subsequently, tissue…fusion study was performed on prepared 3T3 fibroblast cell line pellets embedded into the hydrogel. Results: Based on the obtained results, fibrin-gelatin blend hydrogel with the same proportion of two components provides a natural scaffold for fibroblast-based bioink embedding and culture. Conclusions: The suggested optimized hydrogel was a suitable candidate as a biopaper for skin bioprinting technology.