Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan
Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, Thailand
| [d] Watercare Services Limited, Auckland, New Zealand
Corresponding author: Giancarlo Flores, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan, Office C1-183, Kyoto University Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530, Japan. Fax: +81 075 383 3420; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: The correct understanding of the dynamic behavior of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) under fluctuating groundwater conditions, difficult to test with conventional methods, is important for the adequate remediation of contaminated soils. In this study, we verified the suitability of the Simplified Image Analysis Method (SIAM) as a tool to assess the saturation distribution of water and Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in granular soils, by testing its basic assumption, the existence of a linear relationship between water saturation (Sw), NAPL saturation (So) and optical density (Di), for nine different NAPLs. We then utilized SIAM to study the dynamic behavior of four different LNAPLs that were infiltrated to 1D columns filled with Toyoura sand, and later subjected to two cycles of drainage-imbibition of the water table. It was found that, under similar conditions, the depth of LNAPL infiltration was linearly correlated to the viscosity of the contaminants (R2 = 0.84), the difference between the depth of the mobile fraction after both drainage and imbibition stages was linearly correlated to the interfacial tension values (R2 = 0.79), and the viscosity was logarithmically correlated to the residual saturation ratios for all different NAPLs (R2 = 0.95), correlations that can help us understand and predict the behavior of different contaminants when spilled in the ground.
Keywords: LNAPL, SIAM, fluctuating groundwater, contamination, saturation, porous media